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پارسی، ترجمه و ویرایش

پارسی، ترجمه و ویرایش
 
قالب وبلاگ

دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی 

Persian Unicode Fonts

بهتر است برای تایپ مطالب چه به زبان پارسی، چه به انگلیسی، از فونت‌های «یونیکُد» بهره ببریم. به زبان ساده، یونیکد استانداردی است که در همه‌جای دنیا و روی هر رایانه‌ای حروف و نشانه‌های زبانی را درست نمایش می‌دهد.

تا کنون برای ساختن فونت یونیکد در زبان پارسی هم تلاشهایی صورت گرفته است. من سه دسته از این فونت‌ها را در اینجا برای خوانندگان گرامی به اختصار توضیح می‌دهم و لینک دانلود همۀ آنها را هم در پایان مطلب گذاشته‌ام.

دستۀ سوم (سِری XB) از همۀ فونت‌های دیگر بهتر و دارای استانداردهای بیشتری است:

۱- گروه «فارسی وِب» در دانشگاه صنعتی شریف (که البته دو سالی است متأسفانه منحل شده است) تاکنون هفت فونت یونیکد ساخته است (مانند نازلی، رویا، هما، تیتر، ترافیک، و الهام)؛ البته اشکالی که این فونت‌ها دارد این است که نمی‌توان با آنها هم فارسی تایپ کرد و هم انگلیسی و نیز در آفیس ۲۰۱۳ جداجدا از هم نمایش داده می‌شود، مثلاً «س‌ل‌ا‌م» به جای «سلام»!

۲- آقای «فرهنگ مهروش» و برخی از همکارانشان هفت فونت یونیکد ساخته‌اند (لوتوس، تهران، زر، باران، میترا، یاقوت و فونت زیبای «تایم کریم»). این فونت‌ها دو مشکل ذکر شده در بالا را ندارند. ایشان دربارۀ فونت‌های فارسی و مشکلات آن هم توضیحات بسیار روشنگری داده‌اند که من در این وبلاگ آن را با عنوان «مشکلات ما ایرانیان در استفاده از فونت» نقل کرده‌ام (البته با ذکر منبع).

۳- فونت‌های سِـری XB که بیش از ده فونت است و ظاهراً سایتی به نام IRMUG آنها را ساخته است. این فونت‌ها روی هر سیستم‌عاملی کار می‌کنند – یعنی روی همۀ ویندوزها، مکینتاش، و لینوکس. دو مشکل بالا را هم ندارند. فونت نیلوفر (XB Niloofar) هم یکی از این فونت‌هاست که بسیار زیبا و چشم‌نواز نیز می‌باشد.

IRMUG X Series 2 fonts are created by IRMUG (Iranian Mac User Group). They support Persian (Farsi), Arabic, Dari, Urdu, Pashto, Uzbek, Kurdish, Uighur, old Turkish (Ottoman) and modern Turkish (Roman). The fonts are equipped with two font technologies, AAT and OpenType and can be used on Mac, Windows or Linux.

به دوستان و دانشجویانی که علاقه‌مند به رعایت نکات نگارشی و پاسداشت زبان پارسی هستند سفارشِ اکید می‌کنم این فونت‌ها (بویژه گروه دوم و سوم) را دانلود و همیشه استفاده کنند.

نکتۀ مهم: علاوه بر به کارگیریِ فونت استاندارد، کلیدهای کیبورد شما نیز باید درست تعریف شده باشد؛ مطلبِ «نرم‌افزار چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد» را در همین وبلاگ حتماً ملاحظه بفرمایـید.

بعداً دربارۀ کیبورد فارسی و رفع مشکل حرف «ی» فارسی و «ي» عربی مطالبی خواهم نوشت.

۱- لینک مستقیم دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی (فارسی وِب دانشگاه شریف( (لینک اصلاح شد)

۲- لینک دانلود فونت‌های اصلاح‌شدۀ آقای مهروش + اطلاعات سودمند

۳- لینک دانلود فونت‌های سری  XB (از سایتِ سازنده)

در صورتی که لینک‌ها خراب بود، با اینجانب تماس بگیرید تا فونت‌ها را برایتان ایمیل کنم.


موضوعات مرتبط: فونت‌های یونیکد فارسی
برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
[ سه شنبه بیستم فروردین 1392 ] [ 21:22 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

دانلود فونت یونیکد و زیبای نیلوفر XB Niloofar

Persian Unicode Fonts

 

با درود.

این بار فونت زیبا و استانداردی را که به تازگی پیدا کرده‌ام برای استفادۀ همۀ فارسی‌زبانان، بویژه دانشجویان گرامی، در این وبلاگ می‌گذارم.

یکی از معضلات بسیاری از فونت‌های موجود این است که مثلاً در عبارت «خانـۀ ما» نشان کوچک «ی» را به شکل همزه روی «ـه» نشان می‌دهد. ما در فارسی چنین همزه‌ای نداریم. فقط طراحان و سازندگان فونت این «ۀ» کوچک را به اشتباه به صورت همزه طراحی کرده‌اند. فونت «نیلوفر» این مشکل را حل کرده‌ است. البته لیستی از مزیت‌های این فونت را به صورت فایل PDF آمده کرده‌ام که می‌توانید آن را مطالعه بفرمایید. این فایل و فونت را از لینک زیر دانلود نمایید.

لینک دانلود فونت یونیکد نیـلـوفـر   XB Niloofar

لینک کمکی

 


برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
[ دوشنبه پنجم فروردین 1392 ] [ 22:17 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

فونت‌های یونیکدِ فارسی + دانلود فونت‌های جدید

 Persian Unicode Fonts


مطلب زیر برگرفته از سایتی است که به رسم رعایت امانت و کپی‌رایت، نشانی آن را در پایان مطلب ذکر کرده‌ام. البته از لحاظ نگارشی و تایپی، اندکی آن را تغییر داده‌ام ولی محتوا کاملاً یکسان است.

فونت‌های یونیکدِ ارائـه شده در این مطلب با فونت‌های فارسی وب (که پیشتر معرفی کردم) فرق دارد.

می‌توانید برای دریافت نسخۀ قابل چاپِ همین مطلب، به اینجانب ایمیل بزنید.

لطفاً این مبحث را به دوستان خود نیز اطلاع دهید تا کم‌کم همۀ پارسی‌زبانان از فونت‌های استاندارد و کاراکترهای درست بهره بـبـرند.

***

مشکلات ما ایرانیان در استفاده از فونت

مشکل اول: همۀ ما در کاربردهای اینترنتی خویش بارها دیدهایم که سایت‌های انگلیسی‌زبان از چه تنوع فونتی برخوردارند؛ حال آن که سایت‌های فارسی‌زبان را همواره باید با فونت «تایمز نیو رومن»  یا «تاهما» نوشت. جالب اینجاست که زحمت تهیۀ همین دو فونت یونیکد را هم خود ما ایرانی‌ها نکشیدهایم. واقعاً جای تأسف دارد که این قدر بیتوجهیم.

 

مشکل دوم: همۀ ما بارها دیدهایم که فونت‌های فارسی وقتی از یک... [ادامۀ مطلب را بخوانید.]

 


موضوعات مرتبط: فونت‌های یونیکد فارسی
برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه ششم آذر 1391 ] [ 19:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۶

۴ اردیبهشت ۹۳


دانشجویان گرامی،

۱- حتماً ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت همۀ اصول تایپ و نگارش به صورت تایپ‌شده تحویل دهید.

۲- پیش از شروع کلاس حتماً دو نسخه را آماده داشته باشید.

 ۳- پیش از تایپ، موضوعِ «دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی» را در همین وبلاگ مطالعه بفرمایـید. 

Democratic Theory: Majority Rule

The principle that decisions in a democracy should be made by the greater number of citizens in any political unit. Although the majority possesses the right and the power to govern, democratic theory also demands that minority right be protected and that the minority be permitted to criticize and offer alternative to the policies of the majority and seek, through the electoral process, to become the majority.

The principle of majority rule has been accepted by most democratic theorists as the sine qua non of the doctrines and practices of democracy. If the majority does not rule, power must then be exercised by an elite group selected on the basis of wealth, status, ability, or other criteria. Typically, if the majority will does not prevail, the governing system takes the form of absolutism or authoritarian control. Although rule by the majority is facilitated in a working two-party system — as in Great Britain — coalition governments based on groups of parties that join to form a majority and establish a government are most common in democratic states. Some democratic theorists reject majority rule in favour of government by consensus or by a concurrent majority which offers minority groups a veto over major policies. Antidemocratic theorists regard majority rule as “mobocracy” or government by the untrained, unfit, and emotionally unstable masses. The application of the principle of majority rule to a working system of government, however, tends to encourage stability through widespread participation of citizens in public affairs.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه سی ام فروردین 1393 ] [ 20:55 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۷

۴ اردیبهشت ۹۳

دانشجویان گرامی،

 ۱- ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت تمام نکات نگارشی و تایـپی به صورت تایپ‌شده (در دو نسخه) پیش از شروع کلاس آماده داشته باشید.

  ۲- پیش از تایپ، موضوع دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی را در همین وبلاگ مطالعه بفرمایـید.


IMF

The executive board of the International Monetary Fund has approved US$6.3 million in emergency assistance for natural disasters for the Maldives. The amount approved is available immediately to help the government deal with the devastating effect of the tsunami that struck the island on December 26, 2004. Although the loss of life was limited, there was extensive damage to housing and about 5 percent of the population lost their homes. Tourism and fisheries account for 40 percent of GDP and generate most of the Maldives’ foreign earnings. Net losses to the balance of payments are estimated at about US$160 million in 2005, and total reconstruction costs are estimated at almost 50 percent of GDP.

 

US importers back China textiles

Textile importers and retailers have sued the US government to block a proposed limit on imports from China. Producers have asked for textile quotas because they say Chinese imports will damage the domestic industry. The Commerce Department and four other government agencies are investigating the allegations. But the US Association of Importers of Textiles and Apparel says the case is based on wrong information and violates importers’ rights. According to US-AITA’s executive director, the rules for the government agencies ban petitions such as those from the textile industry.

G8 seeks boost in oil production

Finance ministers and central bank heads from the world’s eight largest economies have urged oil producers to increase supplies to bring down prices. The G8 officials say the prices are a threat to global economy. In a joint statement after meeting in Washington, the ministers also called on consumer nations to make savings on energy consumption. The G8 ministers exhorted the producers to increase output when they met six months ago and it had no perceptible effect. Prices rose all the same, despite that they have again said that producers should provide adequate supplies to ensure that price is moderate.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه بیست و نهم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:19 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۶

۲۸ فروردین ۹۳

Economic Growth

The growth rate of a variable is its percentage increase per annum. To define economic growth, we must specify both the variable we wish to measure and the period over which we wish to measure its rate of change. GDP and GNP measure the total output and total income of an economy. In particular, GDP and GNP are very incomplete measures of economic output; it is difficult to account for the introduction of new products; and there is no direct relation between GDP and happiness.

GDP measures the net output or value added of an economy by measuring goods and services purchased with money. It omits output which is not bought or sold and therefore is unmeasured. The two most important omissions are leisure and pollution.

In most industrial countries, the length of an average work week has fallen by at least ten hours a week since 1990. In choosing to work fewer hours per week, people reveal that the extra leisure is worth at least as much as the extra goods that could have been produced by working harder. But when people decide to swap washing machines for extra leisure, recorded GDP is reduced; hence GDP understates the true economic output of the economy. Conversely, the output of pollution reduces the net economic welfare that the economy is producing and ideally should be subtracted from GDP.

Including leisure in GDP would have increased recorded GDP in both 1870 and 1990. Since the value of leisure has probably increased less quickly than measured output, which increased ninefold in the UK and 90-fold in Japan, over the same period, this would tend to reduce the rate of growth of a more comprehensive output measure.

The object of all economic activity is to provide people with the highest possible real incomes or standard of living.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه بیست و سوم فروردین 1393 ] [ 19:38 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

تـرجـمـۀ سیـاسـی – متن ۵

پنجـشنبه ۲۸ فروردین ۹۳


CAIRO — Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi rebuilt his cabinet Sunday, replacing 10 ministers and amplifying the Islamist presence in the government. The move, in which at least three Islamists were appointed to head major economic ministries, comes a day ahead of a planned visit by a top International Monetary Fund official to discuss an impending $4.8 billion loan.


The shake-up also marked the latest in a series of appointments and forced resignations that have rattled Egypt’s government in the two years of political turmoil since a popular uprising ousted President Hosni Mubarak. Morsi, as well as the transitional leaders who ruled before his June election, have used cabinet shuffles as a means to assuage popular frustration at the slow pace of economic and political reforms.


Islamist political parties gave their support to the latest move, but some opposition members criticized it, saying it served only to further consolidate Islamist control of top government positions weeks after a conflict over the religious character of Egypt’s new constitution left the country bitterly divided.


Mohamed Adel, a leader in the April 6th youth opposition movement, said in a statement Sunday that Morsi’s administration had not consulted opposition parties on the move and that the Muslim Brotherhood would bear responsibility for any bad policies to come. Morsi is a former leader of the powerful Islamist organization.


At least three of the new ministers are long-serving members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including those heading the ministries of supply and domestic trade, and local development. The new finance minister, Al-Mursi al-Sayed Hegazy, is not a member of the Islamist organization, but local media described him as a specialist in Islamic banking who may be sympathetic to the group.


Many of the Brotherhood’s allies from the more-conservative Salafist parties have called on the government to implement a system of Islamic banking, which would ban interest on loans, as an alternative mechanism for economic reform.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه شانزدهم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:45 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۵

پنجشنبه، ۲۱ فروردین ۹۳

Unemployment

The unemployment rate tells macroeconomists how many people from the available pool of labour (the labour force) are unable to find work. Macroeconomists have come to agree that when the economy has witnessed growth from period to period, which is indicated in the GDP growth rate, unemployment levels tend to be low. This is because with rising (real) GDP levels, we know that output is higher, and, hence, more labourers are needed to keep up with the greater levels of production.


Inflation

The third main factor that macroeconomists look at is the inflation rate, or the rate at which prices rise. Inflation is primarily measured in two ways: through the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP deflator. The CPI gives the current price of a selected basket of goods and services that is updated periodically. The GDP deflator is the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP.

If nominal GDP is higher than real GDP, we can assume that the prices of goods and services has been rising. Both the CPI and GDP deflator tend to move in the same direction and differ by less than 1%.


Demand and Disposable Income

What ultimately determines output is demand. Demand comes from consumers (for investment or savings, residential and business), from the government (spending on goods and services of federal employees) and from imports and exports.

Demand alone, however, will not determine how much is produced. What consumers demand is not necessarily what they can afford to buy; therefore, in order to determine demand, a consumer's disposable income must also be measured.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه یکم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:58 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۴

Arms Control: Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

An international agreement to prohibit diffusion of nuclear weapons among non-nuclear states. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was hammered out during four years of intensive negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC) and in the General Assembly's Political and Security Committee, leading to approval of the draft treaty by the assembly in June 1968. Under the terms of the treaty, each nuclear-weapon State agrees “not to transfer... assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”.

Each non-nuclear State agrees “not to receive... manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”. The eleven-article treaty took effect after its ratification by three nuclear powers (Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and by forty non-nuclear countries. Today, most nations are signatories to the treaty and accept its terms as a limitation on their freedom of action in the nuclear weapons field. To counter the threat of future “nuclear blackmail”, the three nuclear powers offered in a Security Council action to provide “immediate assistance, in accordance with the Charter, to any non-nuclear-weapon” State that is the victim of an act or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ جمعه شانزدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ 23:15 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

در یافتنِ معادل‌ اقتصادی عبارت‌های آبیرنگ دقّت بفرمایـید.


CORPORATE TAX RATES

American politicians talk a lot about tax reform but do nothing about it, which is a pity, because while Americans have been talking, other countries have been doing. Since the late 1980s, top corporate tax rates around the world have dropped so far that America’s, which was once below the international average, is now well above.

As this has happened, American-based multinational companies have shifted more activity offshore; their foreign employment has steadily risen over the past decade as domestic employment has declined. This is mostly because of the appeal of cheap labour and growing markets in the emerging world, but business groups and many economists think America’s tax rate is also to blame. Liberal analysts blame the tax code for a different reason: it allows multinationals to stash income in foreign havens and indefinitely defer taxes on it, encouraging the outsourcing of jobs.

Barack Obama claims to be ready to do something about it. Calling the present tax code “outdated, unfair, and inefficient”, he proposed on February 22nd to lower the top corporate rate to 28% from 35% (including state and local taxes, it would fall to 32.6% from 39.2%). Previous analysis suggests that such a cut would cost more than $700 billion, or 0.4% of GDP, over the next decade. Mr Obama would add to the price tag by making permanent a variety of tax provisions, such as the credit for research and development, which are likely to cost $250 billion over the next decade.



موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه شانزدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ 23:8 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
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این وبلاگ برای نگاشتن جُستارهایی درباره زبان پارسی و نیز ترجمه راه‌اندازی شده است. تلاش خواهم کرد گاهگاهی نکته‌هایی برای دانشجویان رشتۀ مترجمی دوستداران «زبان پارسی» و «ترجمه» بنویسم.