پارسی، ترجمه و ویرایش
 
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گردآوری: اکبر خـــرّمی (مترجم و ویراستار)

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موضوعات مرتبط: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: تایپ فارسی
[ جمعه هشتم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 18:53 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۷

۲۰ اردیبهشت ۹۴

 

“The hegemonic system (West), led by the Americans, are trying to turn Iraq into a battlefield of religions,” said the First Vice-Speaker of Iran’s Majlis (Parliament), Mohammad Hassan Aboutorabi-Fard on Monday.

“The hegemonic system tries to fan the flames of discord among Muslims" over its fear of confrontation with them, he said, adding that the West is also seeking the establishment of a safe haven for Israel.

The senior legislator also noted that the Americans are deeply fearful of the Muslim nations’ resistance against the Israeli regime and are thus attempting to create rifts among Muslims in order to undermine their influence and power.

Aboutorabi-Fard added that over the past decades, the world has been witnessing a growing popularity of Islam and the spread of Islamic values.

A draft of the US annual defense bill, which was released on April 27 by the House Armed Services Committee, urges the US government to recognize separate Kurdish and Sunni states and provide them with at least 25 percent of the USD-715-million aid money planned to be given to the Iraqi government to help it fight the ISIL terrorist group.

The draft bill also says the figure could even amount to 60 percent of the money, about USD 429 million.

Iraqi politicians and clerics are opposed to the idea, saying that only the Iraqi people can decide about the future of their country.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ سه شنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 21:20 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن شمارۀ ۸

۲۰ اردیبهشت ۹۴

We have seen that if there is too low a level of demand in an economy, the result is unemployment: during the 1920s and 1930s there was too little demand in Britain, and the consequence was prolonged unemployment. But what happens if there is too much demand in an economy? What is the opposite of unemployment? Naturally, Keynes did not devote a great deal of the General Theory to this question, but nevertheless he did answer it quite clearly. What one means by saying that there is too much demand in the economy is, to put it rather loosely, that the economy is already going flat out, with full employment of men and machinery, so that output is at its highest possible level — and that there is then an increase in demand. This increase in demand cannot call forth more output. All it can do is one of two things: either it can pull up the price of the goods and services that are already being produced. Or, in an economy with trades with other countries, it can increase the quantity of goods available — but only by sucking in more imports. In practice, an excessive level of demand will probably result in some of each; there will be some rise in prices, and imports will be higher, and exports lower than they would otherwise have been.

Now anyone who has lived in post-war Britain will observe that there is something familiar about this: rising prices, too low a level of exports, too high a level of imports; surely these are at the heart of our post-war economic problems. If Keynes’s analysis showed us how to prevent unemployment by ensuring that there is enough demand in the economy, why has it not also shown us how to prevent rising prices and balance of payments crises by avoiding too much demand?

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ سه شنبه پانزدهم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 20:21 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۷

۱۳ اردیبهشت ۹۴

همۀ دانشجویان باید ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت تمام نکات نگارشی به صورت تایپ‌شده تحویل دهند. ترجمه‌های دستنویس اصلاً پذیرفته نخواهد شد.

 Inflation — defined as a sustained increase in the price of goods and services — seems to be inevitable. While rising prices are bad news for consumers inflation can be quite profitable for investors.

Inflation-Sensitive Investments

 Inflation erodes the value of a nation’s currency. In an inflationary environment, a gallon of milk that once cost $3 may now cost $4. There are a variety of factors that influence inflation and arguments about its root cause, but for consumers and investors, the end result is the same. Prices rise. For investors, the key to making money in an inflationary environment is to hold investments that increase in value at a rate in excess of the rate of inflation. A number of investments are historically viewed as hedges against inflation. These include real estate, gold, oil, stocks and inflation-indexed bonds.

Real estate is a popular choice not only because rising prices increase the resale value of the property over time, but because real estate can also be used to generate rental income. Just as the value of the property rises with inflation, the amount tenants pay in rent can be increased over time, enabling the income generated by an investment property to keep pace with the general rise in prices across the economy.

Gold is also a popular inflation hedge. Investors tend to turn to this precious metal during inflationary times, causing its price to rise. While silver and other metals also tend to gain value during inflationary times, gold is generally the headline-grabbing investment, with the price of gold shooting up when inflation is notably present.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ سه شنبه هشتم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 21:42 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
ترجمـۀ سیاسی – متن ۶

۱۳ اردیبهشت ۹۴

همۀ دانشجویان باید ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت تمام نکات نگارشی به صورت تایپ‌شده تحویل دهند. ترجمه‌های دستنویس اصلاً پذیرفته نخواهد شد.

Terrorism

Though there is no generally agreed upon definition of “terrorism”, much can be said about what the term has denoted historically and what it has come to mean by the beginning of the twenty-first century. Its significance for international relations and diplomacy in the contemporary world is beyond dispute. Events of the 1990s and early 2000s have shown terrorism to be one of the major problems confronting the global system in a period of deep and far-reaching transformation.

Terrorism is a form of political violence. It is, more specifically, violence directed against civilians for political purposes. Some authorities — including the United States government — define it as political violence against civilians committed by non-state actors. Others insist that political violence against civilians by states must also be considered a form of terrorism. In this case, the aerial bombardment of cities, most notably in World War II, may be seen as a form of state terrorism.

Historically, the use of “terrorism” dates back to the age of French Revolution. During the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), “terrorism” was employed in an attempt to eliminate “traitors” to the Revolution. The leaders of Reign of Terror thus saw “terrorism” as a way of defending the Revolution’s values of liberty, equality and brotherhood, but the term quickly became associated with the guillotine and state repression. Rather than an instrument for defending liberty, terrorism was the means by which the revolutionary government kept people subservient by keeping them in fear. Many of the most brutal regimes of the twentieth century employed terrorism in a similar manner, including Nazi German, the Soviet Union under Stalin, Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ دوشنبه هفتم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 21:36 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن شمارۀ ۶

۲ اردیبهشت ۹۴

When the price of a product you want to buy goes up, it affects you. But why does the price go up? Is the demand greater than the supply? In order to answer these questions, we need to turn to macroeconomics.

What Is It?

Macroeconomics is the study of the behavior of the economy as a whole. This is different from microeconomics, which concentrates more on individuals and how they make economic decisions. Needless to say, macroeconomy is very complicated and there are many factors that influence it. These factors are analyzed with various economic indicators that tell us about the overall health of the economy.

Macroeconomists try to forecast economic conditions to help consumers, firms and governments make better decisions.

-- Consumers want to know how easy it will be to find work, how much it will cost to buy goods and services in the market, or how much it may cost to borrow money.

-- Businesses use macroeconomic analysis to determine whether expanding production will be welcomed by the market. Will consumers have enough money to buy the products, or will the products sit on shelves and collect dust?

-- Governments turn to the macroeconomy when budgeting spending, creating taxes, deciding on interest rates and making policy decisions.

Macroeconomic analysis broadly focuses on three things: national output (measured by gross domestic product (GDP)), unemployment and inflation.

National Output: GDP

Output, the most important concept of macroeconomics, refers to the total amount of goods and services a country produces, commonly known as the gross domestic product. The figure is like a snapshot of the economy at a certain point in time.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ چهارشنبه دوم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 9:13 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۵

۳۰ فروردین ۹۴

دانشجویان گرامی، به معادلِ درستِ عبارت‌هایی که آبی‌رنگ شده است توجه نمایـیـد.

CORPORATE TAX RATES

American politicians talk a lot about tax reform but do nothing about it, which is a pity, because while Americans have been talking, other countries have been doing. Since the late 1980s, top corporate tax rates around the world have dropped so far that America’s, which was once below the international average, is now well above.

As this has happened, American-based multinational companies have shifted more activity offshore; their foreign employment has steadily risen over the past decade as domestic employment has declined. This is mostly because of the appeal of cheap labour and growing markets in the emerging world, but business groups and many economists think America’s tax rate is also to blame. Liberal analysts blame the tax code for a different reason: it allows multinationals to stash income in foreign havens and indefinitely defer taxes on it, encouraging the outsourcing of jobs.

Barack Obama claims to be ready to do something about it. Calling the present tax code “outdated, unfair, and inefficient”, he proposed on February 22nd to lower the top corporate rate to 28% from 35% (including state and local taxes, it would fall to 32.6% from 39.2%). Previous analysis suggests that such a cut would cost more than $700 billion, or 0.4% of GDP, over the next decade. Mr Obama would add to the price tag by making permanent a variety of tax provisions, such as the credit for research and development, which are likely to cost $250 billion over the next decade.

Mr Obama, however, pledged that he would pay for these provisions by eliminating enough tax breaks to ensure that the overall plan would not add to the deficit. But deciding whose tax breaks will go is what makes tax reform hard.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ چهارشنبه بیست و ششم فروردین ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 18:42 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۵

۳۰ فروردین ۹۴

 دانشجویان گرامی، در هنگام ترجمه به نکات زیر توجه نمایـیـد:

– نام‌های خاص (با حرف بزرگ)

– اصطلاح‌ها (idiomatic expressions)

– بهترین حالت درج جمله‌های معترضه در جملۀ اصلی

– معادل‌هایی که در بافتِ متون سیاسی به کار می‌رود، نه در متون عادی.

 

US Congress has formally muscled its way into President Obama’s negotiations with Iran, creating new and potentially dangerous uncertainties for an agreement that offers the best chance of restraining that country’s nuclear program.

With a unanimous vote on Tuesday, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee approved a bill that would require Congress to review, and then vote on, the final text of a nuclear deal. It would also prohibit Mr Obama from waiving economic sanctions on Iran — the crucial element of any agreement under which Iran rolls back its nuclear program — for at least 30 days, and up to 52 days, after signing an agreement so Congress has time to weigh in.

The full Senate and the House will have to approve the bill. But the committee’s action gives momentum to those who have bitterly criticized Mr. Obama for negotiating with Iran, though they offer no credible alternative to the preliminary deal on the table. Republicans who control Congress have largely been the driving force behind the legislation, but this bill was passed overwhelmingly by the Senate committee thanks to Democratic support.

Mr Obama initially threatened to veto the legislation, but he backed off rather than face a bipartisan override of his veto. The administration did get some compromises. The review period was shortened, and language making the lifting of sanctions dependent on Iran ending some of its activities was softened.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ چهارشنبه بیست و ششم فروردین ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 18:0 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۴

۲۳ فروردین ۹۴

 

ترجمۀ این هفته شامل دو متن است که از لحاظ موضوعی با هم تفاوت دارند.

 

Iran’s total non-oil exports hit $49.744 billion in the past Iranian calendar year, which ended on March 20, showing 18.87 percent rise from $41.848 billion in its preceding year, according to the Iran Customs Administration.

The country’s non-oil imports reached $52.477 billion in the past calendar year, with 5.57 percent growth compared to the year before.

In December 2014, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said the government aimed to increase non-oil exports to $50 billion by the next calendar year.

Traditionally, Iran relies heavily on oil for revenue. With sanctions restricting oil exports, the government has worked to advance other parts of the economy.

 

***

The Central Bank of Iran has announced that the inflation rate for the 12‑month period ended on the last day of the twelfth month of the previous Iranian calendar year (March 20) fell to 15.6 percent, a 0.2 percent drop compared to the previous month. 

The inflation rate plunged from 32.5 percent in the first month of the previous Iranian calendar year to 15.6 percent in the twelfth month.

The Central Bank has predicted that the inflation rate will decline to 13 percent in the current year.

In April 2014, the International Monetary Fund said Iran had achieved considerable progress in raising per capita income and living standards in previous decades.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ سه شنبه هجدهم فروردین ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 11:49 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۴

۲۳ فروردین ۹۴

 

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif briefed members of an influential parliamentary commission over details of a framework agreement with world powers on Tehran’s nuclear energy program.

The session was held after Iran and the Group 5+1 (Russia, China, the US, Britain, France and Germany) on April 2 reached a framework agreement on Tehran’s civilian nuclear program after more than a week of intensive negotiations in Lausanne, Switzerland, with both sides committed to push for a final, comprehensive accord until the end of June.

Dr Zarif once again made it clear that the whole sanctions the UN Security Council had previously imposed on Iran will be entirely annulled immediately after a new resolution is passed as a result of the final, comprehensive deal.

“If a deal is reached, the case will be referred to the United Nations Security Council which will approve the resolution under the Article 41 of Chapter 7 that annuls all previous resolutions,” an MP quoted Zarif as saying, noting that all those happen before the parties even begin to implement the comprehensive agreement.

After the parties to the deal start to meet their commitments, the EU sanctions will be terminated and application of the US secondary sanctions will be ceased, since termination of the latter will require the US Congress ratification, Zarif has reportedly explained.

According to the Lausanne statement, “the EU will terminate the implementation of all nuclear‑related economic and financial sanctions and the US will cease the application of all nuclear‑related secondary economic and financial sanctions, simultaneously with the IAEA‑verified implementation by Iran of its key nuclear commitments.”

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ دوشنبه هفدهم فروردین ۱۳۹۴ ] [ 13:36 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

نکات نگارشی و تایپی – ۲

چند نکتۀ کوتاه برگرفته از «دستور خط فارسی»، تألبف فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی:

 

«به» در موارد زیر پیوسته نوشته مى‌شود:

 

۱- هنگامى که بر سر فعل یا مصدر بیاید (همان‌که اصطلاحاً «باى زینت» یا «باى تأکید» خوانده مى‌شود):

          بگفتم، بروم، بنماید، بگفتن (= گفتن)

۲- به‌صورت بدین، ‌بدان، بدو، بدیشان به کار رود.

۳- هرگاه صفت بسازد:

          بخرد، بشکوه، بهنجار، بنام

 

«به» در مواردِ دیگر جدا نوشته مى‌شود:

به برادرت گفتم، به سر بردن، به آواز بلنـد، به‌سختى، منـزل‌به‌منـزل، به نام خدا

 

    تبصره: حرف «به» که در آغاز بعضى از ترکیب‌هاى عربى مى‌آید از نوع حرف اضافهٔ فارسى نیست و پیوسته به کلمهٔ بعد نوشته مى‌شود:

          بعینه، بنفسه، برأی‌العین، بشخصه، مابازاء، بذاته

 

ـ هرگاه «باى زینت»، «نون نفى»، «میم نهى» بر سر افعالى که با الف مفتوح یا مضموم آغاز مى‌شوند (مانند انداختن، افتادن، افکندن) بیاید، «الف» در نوشتن حذف مى‌شود:

          بینداز، نیفتاد، میفکن

«بی» همیشه جدا از کلمهٔ پس از خود نوشته مى‌شود، مگر آنکه کلمه بسیط‌گونه باشد، یعنى معناى آن دقیقاً مرکب از معانىِ اجزاى آن نباشد:

          بیهوده، بیخود، بیراه، بیچاره، بینوا، بیجا

 

«مى» و «همى» همواره جدا از کلمهٔ پس از خود نوشته‌ مى‌شود [با نیم‌فاصله یا فاصلۀ مجازی]:

         مى‌رود، مى‌افکند، همى‌گوید

 

* توصیه می‌کنم سری به وب‌سایت فرهنگستان زبان و ادب پارسی بزیند و «دستور خط فارسی» را دانلود یا از روی سایت مطالعه نمایید.

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موضوعات مرتبط: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشیٰ تایپ فارسیٰ درست‌نویسی فارس
[ دوشنبه هجدهم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 9:50 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

آموزش مصوّر تصحیح کیبورد فارسی

فایل پیوست آموزش مصوّر و گام به گام نصب و تصحیح کیبورد برای زبان فارسی است.

با نصب نرم‌افزار کوچک و رایگان ولی حرفه‌ایِ Keyboard Layout Manager می‌توانید یک بار برای همیشه کیبورد فارسیِ خود را اصلاح کنید و همۀ کاراکترهای مورد نیاز در تایپ فارسی را داشته باشید.

حجم فایل راهنمای نصب کمتر از ۷۰۰ کیلوبایت است.

دانلود آموزش مصوّر تصحیح کیبورد فارسی

 ***

 همچنین پیشنهاد می‌شود مطالب زیر را در همین وبلاگ ملاحظه بفرمایـید:

- دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی Persian Unicode Fonts

- مشکلات ما ایرانیان در استفاده از فونت

- نکات نگارشی و تایپی

 


موضوعات مرتبط: فونت‌های یونیکد فارسی، چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد، نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: نرم‌افزار چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد
[ سه شنبه دوازدهم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 8:1 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۳

۱۷ اسفند ۹۳

 

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Rating agency Moody's warned it may cut the triple-A ratings of France, Britain and Austria and it downgraded six other European nations including Italy, Spain and Portugal, citing growing risks from Europe's debt crisis.

Moody's move was less aggressive than rival agency Standard & Poor's, but its action puts London's prized top credit rating in jeopardy for the first time.

It said it was worried about Europe's ability to undertake the reforms needed to address the crisis and the amount of funds available to fight it. It also said the region's weak economy could undermine austerity drives by governments to fix their finances.

The euro and sterling fell after the announcement, with pound falling 0.4 percent to $1.5703 and the single currency dipping 0.3 percent to $1.3154. European and U.S. equity index futures were also lower.

The U.S. rating agency said it changed the outlooks for the ratings of France, Britain, and Austria to negative due to "a number of specific credit pressures that would exacerbate the susceptibility of these sovereigns' balance sheets."

Germany's top-tier rating was described as "appropriate" by Moody's, and it affirmed the triple-A rating on the euro zone's bailout fund, the European Financial Stability Fund (EFSF).

Moody's, which said late last year it was reconsidering its European ratings, cut the ratings of Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Malta by one notch. It downgraded Spain by two notches.

Moody's said the scope of the downgrades was limited due to "the European authorities' commitment to preserving the monetary union and implementing whatever reforms are needed to restore market confidence."

The announcement came a day after Greece's parliament approved a deep new round of budget cuts in the hope of securing new bailout funds and avoiding a default in March.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ دوشنبه یازدهم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 11:31 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۳

۱۷ اسفند ۹۳

CAIRO — Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi rebuilt his cabinet Sunday, replacing 10 ministers and amplifying the Islamist presence in the government. The move, in which at least three Islamists were appointed to head major economic ministries, comes a day ahead of a planned visit by a top International Monetary Fund official to discuss an impending $4.8 billion loan.

The shake-up also marked the latest in a series of appointments and forced resignations that have rattled Egypt’s government in the two years of political turmoil since a popular uprising ousted President Hosni Mubarak. Morsi, as well as the transitional leaders who ruled before his June election, have used cabinet shuffles as a means to assuage popular frustration at the slow pace of economic and political reforms.

Islamist political parties gave their support to the latest move, but some opposition members criticized it, saying it served only to further consolidate Islamist control of top government positions weeks after a conflict over the religious character of Egypt’s new constitution left the country bitterly divided.

Mohamed Adel, a leader in the April 6th youth opposition movement, said in a statement Sunday that Morsi’s administration had not consulted opposition parties on the move and that the Muslim Brotherhood would bear responsibility for any bad policies to come. Morsi is a former leader of the powerful Islamist organization.

At least three of the new ministers are long-serving members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including those heading the ministries of supply and domestic trade, and local development. The new finance minister, Al-Mursi al-Sayed Hegazy, is not a member of the Islamist organization, but local media described him as a specialist in Islamic banking who may be sympathetic to the group.

Many of the Brotherhood’s allies from the more-conservative Salafist parties have called on the government to implement a system of Islamic banking, which would ban interest on loans, as an alternative mechanism for economic reform.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ دوشنبه یازدهم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 11:27 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۲

یکشنبه، ۱۰ اسفند ۹۳

 

The most basic laws in economics are the law of supply and the law of demand. Indeed, almost every economic event or phenomenon is the product of the interaction of these two laws. The law of supply states that the quantity of a good supplied (i.e., the amount owners or producers offer for sale) rises as the market price rises, and falls as the price falls. Conversely, the law of demand says that the quantity of a good demanded falls as the price rises, and vice versa. (Economists do not really have a “law” of supply, though they talk and write as though they do.)

One function of markets is to find “equilibrium” prices that balance the supplies of and demands for goods and services. An equilibrium price (also known as a “market-clearing” price) is one at which each producer can sell all he wants to produce and each consumer can buy all he demands. Naturally, producers always would like to charge higher prices. But even if they have no competitors, they are limited by the law of demand: if producers insist on a higher price, consumers will buy fewer units. The law of supply puts a similar limit on consumers. They always would prefer to pay a lower price than the current one. But if they successfully insist on paying less, suppliers will produce less and some demand will go unsatisfied.

Economists often talk of “demand curves” and “supply curves.” A demand curve traces the quantity of a good that consumers will buy at various prices. As the price rises, the number of units demanded declines. That is because everyone’s resources are finite; as the price of one good rises, consumers buy less of that and, sometimes, more of other goods that now are relatively cheaper. Similarly, a supply curve traces the quantity of a good that sellers will produce at various prices. As the price falls, so does the number of units supplied. Equilibrium is the point at which the demand and supply curves intersect — the single price at which the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are the same.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ سه شنبه پنجم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 9:18 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۲

یکشنبه، ۱۰ اسفند ۹۳

بازبـیـنـی کل متن فارسی یک روز پس از ترجمه فراموش نشود!

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has dispatched his brother and atomic chief to Geneva to try to overcome hurdles in nuclear talks with the United States and five other major powers. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said on his way to meet his Iranian counterpart Mohammad Javad Zarif that Washington wanted an agreement by the deadline of June 30.
U.S. and Iranian officials began a new round of talks in Geneva on Friday, seeking to end a 12 year standoff over the Islamic Republic's nuclear programme, suspected by the West of harbouring military aims — a charge Tehran consistently denies.
The bilateral Tehran–Washington discussions, to culminate in a foreign ministers’ summit on Sunday, are part of wider bargaining between Iran and six major powers — P5+1 — aimed at restricting Iran’s nuclear activities in return for relief from global economic sanctions.
Iran’s negotiations with “P5+1” — the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Russia and China — have already missed a November 2014 target date, and in the run up to the June 30 deadline, wide gaps apparently remain, mainly over Iranian uranium enrichment and the pace of removing sanctions.
Iranian media said nuclear chief Ali Akbar Salehi and President Rouhani’s brother and close aide, Hossein Fereydoon, would make their first formal appearance in the marathon talks, now entering a sensitive stage involving fine technical details.
“Fereydoon’s presence is prompted by the need to engage in consultations and make necessary coordinations throughout the present round of talks in Geneva,” foreign ministry official Mohammad Ali Hosseini said.
“Today Geneva is the epicentre of U.S.–Iranian diplomacy over the remaining nuclear issues,” he was quoted as saying by state news agency IRNA.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ دوشنبه چهارم اسفند ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 12:4 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۱

یکشنبه، ۳ اسفند ۹۳

 

Unemployment

The unemployment rate tells macroeconomists how many people from the available pool of labour (the labour force) are unable to find work. Macroeconomists have come to agree that when the economy has witnessed growth from period to period, which is indicated in the GDP growth rate, unemployment levels tend to be low. This is because with rising (real) GDP levels, we know that output is higher, and, hence, more labourers are needed to keep up with the greater levels of production.

 

Inflation

The third main factor that macroeconomists look at is the inflation rate, or the rate at which prices rise. Inflation is primarily measured in two ways: through the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP deflator. The CPI gives the current price of a selected basket of goods and services that is updated periodically. The GDP deflator is the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP.

If nominal GDP is higher than real GDP, we can assume that the prices of goods and services has been rising. Both the CPI and GDP deflator tend to move in the same direction and differ by less than 1%.

 

Demand and Disposable Income

What ultimately determines output is demand. Demand comes from consumers (for investment or savings, residential and business), from the government (spending on goods and services of federal employees) and from imports and exports.

Demand alone, however, will not determine how much is produced. What consumers demand is not necessarily what they can afford to buy; therefore, in order to determine demand, a consumer's disposable income must also be measured.

 

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
[ چهارشنبه بیست و نهم بهمن ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 23:0 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۱

۳ اسفند ۹۳

دانشجویان گرامی، لطفاً متن زیر را ترجمه نموده، در دو نسخه همراه خود بیاورید.

 

Arms Control: Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

An international agreement to prohibit diffusion of nuclear weapons among non-nuclear states. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was hammered out during four years of intensive negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC) and in the General Assembly's Political and Security Committee, leading to approval of the draft treaty by the assembly in June 1968. Under the terms of the treaty, each nuclear-weapon State agrees “not to transfer... assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”.

Each non-nuclear State agrees “not to receive... manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”. The eleven-article treaty took effect after its ratification by three nuclear powers (Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and by forty non-nuclear countries. Today, most nations are signatories to the treaty and accept its terms as a limitation on their freedom of action in the nuclear weapons field. To counter the threat of future “nuclear blackmail”, the three nuclear powers offered in a Security Council action to provide “immediate assistance, in accordance with the Charter, to any non-nuclear-weapon” State that is the victim of an act or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
[ چهارشنبه بیست و نهم بهمن ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 22:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

آنچه در فارسی «خط فاصله» می‌نامیم در واقع تنها «یک» کاراکتر نیست، بلکه «چندین» کاراکتر وجود دارد که هر کدام هم کاربرد ویژۀ خودش را دارد.

البته ما در تایپ کردن اگر تنها سه نوع از اینها را بشناسیم، تا حد زیادی مشکل حل می شود.

۱- hyphen ()

۲- en dash (–)

۳- em dash (—)

در این مطلب به کاربردهای en dash می‌پردازیم:

ماهیت و ویژگی‌ها:

En dash کمی بلندتر از hyphen ولی کوچکتر از em dash است. این نامگذاری به خاطر این است که در حروفچینی‌های قدیم، یکی از آن دو به اندازۀ طول حرفِ انگلیسیِ n بوده و دیگری به اندازۀ طول حرف m.

نکته: قبل و بعد از hyphen و n dash هیچ فاصله‌ای نمی‌گذاریم، یعنی از کلید space bar استفاده نمی‌کنیم؛ اما قبل و بعد از m dash فاصله می‌گذاریم.

چگونه en dash را تایپ کنیم؟

برای تایپ en dash دست‌کم سه راه وجود دارد:

۱- ترکیب کلیدهای Alt و عدد 0150

۲- درج کردنِ آن از پنجرۀ Symbols در نرم‌افزار Word

۳- ترکیب کلیدهای کنترل و منفی (-Ctrl)

البته شاید اگر از فونت‌های استانداردِ فارسی استفاده نکنید، راهِ سوم با مشکل روبه‌رو شود!

کاربردها:

۱- میان دو عددِ سال، مانند: ۱۳۹۴–۱۳۹۳؛

۲- میان دو واژه که مبدأ و مقصد وسایل نقلیه را نشان می‌دهد، مانند: قطار مشهد–تهران؛

۳- میان دو واژه‌ای که ارتباطی دوسویه را نشان می‌دهد، مانند: مرز ایران–عراق؛ مسائل سیاسی–اقتصادی؛

۴- میان شمارۀ صفحات، مانند: صص ۵۵–۲۳؛

۵- میان اعداد نشان‌دهندۀ امتیاز در مسابقات، مانند: تیم الف ۴–۱ تیم ب را شکست داد؛

نکته: اگر پیش از اعداد یا تاریخ واژۀ «از» را به کار ببریم، نباید از en dash استفاده کنیم؛ بلکه باید به جای این کاراکتر از واژۀ «تــا» بهره بگیریم. مثال:

غلط: او از ۱۳۸۰۱۳۷۶رئیس جمهوری ایران بود.

درست: او از ۱۳۷۶ تــا ۱۳۸۰ رئیس جمهوری ایران بود.

 

به زودی دربارۀ ماهیت و کاربردهای دو نوع خط فاصلۀ دیگر در همین وبلاگ مطالبی را خواهم نوشت.

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
[ پنجشنبه نهم بهمن ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 13:38 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

نمونه سؤالات درس «مبانی نظری ترجمه»

درس‌های ۵ و ۶ کتابِ Resource Book:

1. Nida introduced two types of meaning. Name and explain them.

2. What does ‘polysemy’ mean? Give two examples.

3. Explain ‘hierarchical structuring’ in the analysis of meaning.

4. What is the difference between ‘superordinate’ and ‘hyponym’?

5. Explain “componential analysis” with two examples.

 ***

1. Explain ‘formal equivalence’ as proposed by Nida.

2. Explain ‘dynamic equivalence’ as proposed by Nida.

3. What are the essential elements in dynamic equivalence? Name at least three items.

4. Nida does not believe that literal translation is the same as formal translation; explain this difference.

5. What does the concept of ‘adjustment’ mean in terms of dynamic equivalence?

6. Nida proposed a three-stage translation process; briefly explain this process.

7. What are kernel sentences?

8. What was the name of Nida’s mother-in-law?

 


موضوعات مرتبط: مبانی نظری ترجمه
برچسب‌ها: مبانی نظری ترجمه
[ شنبه ششم دی ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 12:6 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

Sample questions from the book

Translation: An Advanced Resource Book

Unit1:

Roman Jakobson proposed three types of translation; name them and define one of them.

James S. Holmes divided the field of Translation Studies into two subfields; name them and explain one only.

What is ‘interference’ in translation?

What are ‘universals of translation’? Give two examples.

‘Translation Studies’ is an interdiscipline; what does it mean?

 

Unit 2:

Explain how attention to sense versus form influences the type and nature of translation.

What is ‘translationese’?

What is ‘translatorese’ as proposed by Newmark?

What are differences between literal and free translation?

Briefly explain the concept of ‘comprehensibility’ in translation.

 

Unit 3:

Briefly explain the concept of ‘unit of translation’.

What are the components of linguistic sign as proposed by Saussure? Give an example.

 

Unit 4:

Briefly explain the concepts of ‘langue’ and ‘parole’ as proposed by Saussure.

What is ‘formal correspondence’?

What is the differences between formal correspondence and textual equivalence?

What is translation shift?

Explain the concepts of loss and gain in translation via an example.

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: مبانی نظری ترجمه
برچسب‌ها: مبانی نظری ترجمه, نمونه سؤالات مبانی نظری ترجمه
[ یکشنبه هجدهم آبان ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 11:10 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
[ دوشنبه چهاردهم مهر ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 12:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

تلاش خواهم کرد در این وبلاگ، هر از گاهی، به یک نکتۀ نگارشی و ویرایشی اشاره کنم. امیدوارم دوستداران زبان پارسی و دانشجویان رشتۀ مترجمی انگلیسی این نکات را همیشه رعایت نمایند.

 

کامای اضافی (نابه‌جا)

یکی از اشتباهات رایج این است که کاما (یا همان ویرگول) را در جاهایی به کار ببریم که نباید. در اینجا پنج مورد از همین کاربردهای نادرستِ کاما را بررسی می‌کنیم:

 

۱- فاعل و فعل را نباید با کاما از هم جدا کرد.

نمونه:

غلط: آن کتابِ روی میز، بسیار جالب است.

درست: آن کتابِ روی میز بسیار جالب است.

 

۲- قبل و بعد از «وجه وصفیِ محدودکننده» (یا همان restrictive adjective clause) نباید کاما بگذاریم.

نمونه:

غلط: مردی که کلاه مشکی به سر دارد، برادر من است.

درست: مردی که کلاه مشکی به سر دارد برادر من است.

 

۳- فعل اصلیِ جمله نباید با کاما از مفعول جدا شود.

نمونه:

غلط: همه می‌دانند که، قواعد بازی را باید رعایت کرد.

درست: همه می‌دانند که قواعد بازی را باید رعایت کرد.

۴- میانِ عناصری که با حروف ربط مرکب (یا همان correlative conjunctions) به هم مربوط می‌شوند نباید کاما بگذاریم.

نمونه:

غلط: او دلش می‌خواست یا جراح شود، یا مهندس مکانیک!

درست: او دلش می‌خواست یا جراح شود یا مهندس مکانیک!

 

و نکته‌ای کلّی اینکه در هنگام نوشتن نباید هرجا خواستیم لحظه‌ای صبر کنیم یا نفسی تازه کنیم کاما بگذاریم! این کار اشتباهی است که در بسیاری از نوشته‌های دانشجویی (و گاه حتی غیردانشجویی) به چشم می‌خورد.


موضوعات مرتبط: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
[ سه شنبه هشتم مهر ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 10:5 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

امروز ۳۰ سپتامبر «روز جهانی مترجم» است.

این روز را به مترجمان دلسوز کشورمان تبریک عرض می‌نمایم.

 

Today is the International Translation Day.

Congratulations to devoted translators around the world, especially those in our own country, Iran.

[ سه شنبه هشتم مهر ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 9:11 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

همۀ ما با کاراکترِ «فاصله» آشنا هستیم. اما کجا باید از نیم فاصله استفاده کنیم و اصلاً چیست و به چه دردی می‌خورد؟

نیم‌فاصله چیست؟

 این کاراکتر با فاصلۀ معمولی اندکی تفاوت دارد؛ فاصله را میان واژه‌های کاملاً مجزا از هم می‌گذاریم؛ مثلاً «من دیروز دوستم را دیدم.»

اما هنگامی که واژه‌ای خودش دو بخش نوشتاریِ جدا از هم دارد باید آن دو بخش را با نیم‌فاصله از هم جدا کنیم. مثلاً فعل‌های ماضی نقلی، مضارع، و ماضی استمراری را در نظر بگیرید:

۱- رفته ام؛ می روم؛ می دیدم؛ ...

۲- رفته‌ام؛ می‌روم؛ می‌دیدم؛ ...

شمارۀ ۱ با فاصلۀ معمولی تایپ شده ولی شمارۀ ۲ با نیم فاصله. نیم‌فاصله دو بخش واژه را بسیار به هم نطدیک می‌کند ولی به هم نمی‌چسباند. واژه‌های ردیف ۲ اگر در آخِـر خط بیایند همیشه در کنار هم می‌مانند، یعنی یــا هر دو بخش در آخر خط هستند یا با هم به خط بعدی می‌روند، نه اینکه بخش اول در آخر خط بماند و بخش دوم به سطر بعد منتقل شود.

دیگر مواردی که باید از نیم‌فاصله استفاده کنیم:

-      نشانۀ جمع «ها»، البته اگر نخواهیم آن را به واژۀ اصلی بچسبانیم: کتاب‌ها

-      واژه‌های مرکب: دانش‌آموز، چشم‌انداز، نیم‌فاصله، هم‌میهن، بی‌تو، عذاب‌آور.

-      نشانۀ نکره «ای»: خانه‌ای، مدرسه‌ای، بازی‌ای جالب، نتیجه‌ای، چینی‌ای، سینی‌ای، ...

-      افزودن نشانۀ صفت «برتر» و «برترین»: دیدنی‌ترین، بلندهمت‌تر، نادان‌ترین، آراسته‌تر، خواندنی‌ترین، ...

چگونه کاراکتر «نیم‌فاصله» را در نرم‌افزار وُرد (Word) تایپ کنیم؟

چند راه وجود دارد. در اینجا فقط دو راه را بررسی می‌کنم:

۱- راه عذاب‌آور: از منوی Insert گزینۀ Symbols را انتخاب می‌کنیم. سپس پنجره‌ای باز می‌شود. روی هر خانۀ آن که کلیک کنیم، نام کاراکترِ آن خانه در پایین و سمت چپِ پنجره نمایش داده می‌شود. از بالا، حدود ۲۰ ردیف پایین می‌آیـیـم تا به چند خانۀ خالی کنار هم برسیم. یکی از این خانه‌های خالی نامش چنین است: Zero Width Non‑joiner. آن را که پیدا کردیم، روی دکمۀ Shortcut key کلیک می‌کنیم. پنجرۀ جدیدی باز می‌شود و نشانگرِ موس در کادری به نام Press new shortcut key در حال چشمک زدن است. حالا هر ترکیبی از کلیدهای کیبورد را که می‌خواهیم برای ما نیم‌فاصله تایپ کند (مثلاً Ctrl+space) در همان کادر تایپ می‌کنیم و سرانجام دکمۀ Assign در پایین همان پنجره را کلیک می‌کنیم. حالا دیگر در ورد هر وقت همان ترکیب را بزنیم، نیم‌فاصله تایپ می‌شود.

۲- راه یک بار برای همیشه: نرم‌افزاری کوچک و عالی را به سرعت نصب کنیم تا هر کاراکتری را که دلمان خواست برای هر کلیدی که خواستیم تعریف کنیم؛ با این کار دیگر فقط در نرم‌افزار «ورد» نخواهد بود که می‌توانیم نیم‌فاصله تایپ کنیم، بلکه در هر جای ویندوز نیز می‌توان از نیم‌فاصله استفاده کرد. این نرم‌افزار نامش Keyboard Layout Manager است: بهترین، استانداردترین و حرفه‌ای‌ترین. روش دانلود و نصبِ این نرم‌افزار را در مطلب دیگری در همین وبلاگ در این لینک توضیح داده‌ام: نرم‌افزار رایگان چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد.

اگر در مورد این مطلب سؤالی داشتید یا در نصب و استفاده از این نرم‌افزار رایگان به مشکلی برخوردید، حتماً با من تماس بگیرید.

 

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد
برچسب‌ها: نیم‌فاصله, فاصلۀ مجازی, تایپ فارسی, تصحیح کیبورد
[ دوشنبه هفدهم شهریور ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 10:5 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۱۱

۱ خرداد ۹۳

 

درگذشت ناگهانی خانم «فاطمه شمس کلاهی» را به خانوادۀ ایشان و دانشجویان گرامی تسلیت می‌گویم. روحش شاد.

Youth unemployment is blighting a whole generation of youngsters. The International Labour Organisation estimates there are 75m 15-to-24-year-olds looking for work across the globe. But this figure excludes a large number of youngsters who do not participate in the labour market at all. Among the 34 members of the OECD, a club of rich nations, it is estimated there are 26m youths not in education, employment or training. Similarly, across the developing countries, the World Bank estimates that there are 262m such youths. All told, there are perhaps as many as 290m 15-to-24-year-olds not participating in the labour market — almost a quarter of the world’s youth, and a group almost as large as the population of America. More young people are idle than ever before. Why?

Some of these youths choose not to work. About a quarter of the 290m are south Asian women who do not work for cultural reasons. And under-24s who are working are disproportionately engaged in informal or temporary employment. In the rich world, it is estimated that a third of under-24s are on temporary contracts; in developing countries a fifth are unpaid labourers or work in the informal sector. That is better than not working at all, but is hardly cause for celebration. In total, nearly half of the world’s young are contributing to the labour market less effectively than they could be.

In the developing world, a second contributory factor is that many countries with fast-growing populations also have inefficient labour markets. Almost half the world’s young people live in South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. A third factor is the growing mismatch between the skills that youngsters have and the vacancies that employers want to fill.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه بیست و هفتم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 14:25 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۹

۱ خرداد ۹۳

 درگذشت ناگهانی خانم «فاطمه شمس کلاهی» را به خانوادۀ ایشان و دانشجویان گرامی تسلیت می‌گویم. روحش شاد.

One wonders how much further the United States will allow itself to be dragged down into the deepening abyss that is today’s Egypt. Those in the Obama administration and Congress who favor continued U.S. military aid to the dictatorship in Cairo insist that although such aid may run counter to American ideals, it does serve American interests. I would argue the contrary, that American interests are being harmed every day that support continues.

Far from aiding the United States in the struggle against terrorism, as the Egyptian military dictatorship and its supporters claim, the military’s brutal crackdown on Egypt’s Islamists is creating a new generation of terrorists. Whatever one thought of the government of Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Morsi, and there was much to criticize, it came to office by fair and legitimate electoral means, just as U.S. policy had demanded, and it was headed toward a second election that it probably would have lost.

Although the Morsi government did use force against demonstrators, that was nothing compared with the military’s killing of thousands and imprisonment of tens of thousands since the military coup last summer. Terrorism since the coup has killed more than 10 times as many people as it did in the year Morsi was in office. And it’s not surprising that terrorism has been on the upswing. The military’s crackdown, in which hundreds may be condemned to death in an hour-long trial, will leave some Islamists believing that their only choice is to kill or be killed. For every jihadist the military may kill in the Sinai Peninsula, it creates many more future jihadists throughout the nation.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ جمعه بیست و ششم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 15:58 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۱۰

پنجشنبه، ۲۵ اردیبهشت ۹۳

“Phase two of the Iranian targeted subsidy plan” is as clunky in Persian as it is in English, but it rolls off every Iranian’s tongue. On April 28th President Hassan Rohani raised petrol prices by 75%, from 4,000 to 7,000 rials ($0.16 to $0.28) per litre. Increases in the price of staples are imminent, too.

This second round of cuts to the subsidies on petrol, gas and electricity, as well as on staples, was due in June 2012. But the former president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, repeatedly delayed it, thanks in part to a feud with the parliament. Although Mr Roohani’s cuts come at a time of slow economic growth and high inflation, both the state and the people support him more than his predecessor.

Like many oil-rich countries in the region that lavished funds on their people, Iran needs to cut the huge cost of subsidising its growing population of 77m. An estimated $40-100 billion is paid every year to keep Iranians, poor and rich, supplied with cheap energy, water, fuel and basic food. Consumption has soared. Shopkeepers in Tehran spray their verandas to drive away the dust. Cars clog the country’s roads. Iran’s energy consumption is reckoned to be 80% above the Middle East’s average. Worse, billions of dollars are squandered every year by smugglers taking Iran’s cheap fuel across borders to Iraq and Pakistan.

 

Iranians hope the subsidy reform will be done better than under Mr Ahmadinejad. In the first round of cuts in 2010, half the money saved was meant to be redistributed to the poor. But the government did not have good enough data to work out who should qualify. With the nation still reeling from the tumult following his disputed re-election in 2009, Mr Ahmadinejad handed the cash out to everyone. This ate into money earmarked for industry, so Iran’s oil, gas and petrochemical sectors, targeted by sanctions in 2012, accrued large debts. The sanctions also sent the rial crashing, causing huge inflation in Iran’s import-dominated economy.

Source: Economist; April 30th 2014


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ دوشنبه بیست و دوم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 15:18 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۸

۲۵ اردیبهشت ۹۳

Foreign Ministry: PGCC Allegations False

 

Foreign Ministry Spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast said recent allegations made by the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council are baseless and false.

In the final statement of the 119th session of the PGCC foreign ministers, which concluded in the Saudi port of Jeddah late on Tuesday, the council expressed deep alarm at Iran’s nuclear program, PressTV reported.

PGCC member-states also accused the Islamic Republic of interfering in the internal affairs of Persian Gulf countries. Mehmanparast described these claims as an attempt to divert the international community’s attention from the militarist and crisis-causing measures of certain regional countries in the face of their people’s legitimate demands.

“Such measures will not help the security and stability of the region,” the spokesman said, adding that it will only divert attention from Israel as the real threat.

Mehmanparast stressed the importance of preserving the security of the Persian Gulf for Iran and said the attempts of certain regional currents and media in sowing the seeds of discord were ‘irresponsible’.

Founded in 1981, the PGCC groups Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait.


Crisis of Illegitimacy

An Iranian lawmaker also lashed out at the PGCC for leveling “unfounded and baseless” accusations against Tehran, saying the council is trying to conceal its illegitimacy.

“PGCC member-states are attributing groundless issues to Iran in order to conceal their internal problems and escape the crisis of illegitimacy,” said a member of the Majlis National Security and Foreign Policy Commission, Mohammad Baba-Ahmadi, on Wednesday.

The legislator added that the PGCC states make such claims to divert the world public opinion from the ongoing developments in the region, Majlis news agency ICANA reported.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه بیستم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 21:40 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۹

پنجشنبه، ۱۸ اردیبهشت ۹۳

رعایت نکات نگارشی و تایـپـی و نشانه‌های سجاوندی و استفاده از فونت یـونـیکد الـزامی است!

NEW YORK (Reuters) — Rating agency Moody’s warned it may cut the triple-A ratings of France, Britain and Austria and it downgraded six other European nations including Italy, Spain and Portugal, citing growing risks from Europe’s debt crisis.

Moody’s move was less aggressive than rival agency Standard & Poor’s, but its action puts London's prized top credit rating in jeopardy for the first time.

It said it was worried about Europe's ability to undertake the reforms needed to address the crisis and the amount of funds available to fight it. It also said the region's weak economy could undermine austerity drives by governments to fix their finances.

The euro and sterling fell after the announcement, with pound falling 0.4 percent to $1.57 and the single currency dipping 0.3 percent to $1.31.

The U.S. rating agency said it changed the outlooks for the ratings of France, Britain, and Austria to negative due to a number of specific credit pressures that would exacerbate the susceptibility of these sovereigns’ balance sheets.

Germany’s top-tier rating was described as “appropriate” by Moody's, and it affirmed the triple-A rating on the euro zone's bailout fund, the European Financial Stability Fund (EFSF).

Moody’s, which said late last year it was reconsidering its European ratings, cut the ratings of Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Malta by one notch. It downgraded Spain by two notches.

Moody’s said the scope of the downgrades was limited due to “the European authorities’ commitment to preserving the monetary union and implementing whatever reforms are needed to restore market confidence.”

The announcement came a day after Greece’s parliament approved a deep new round of budget cuts in the hope of securing new bailout funds and avoiding a default in March.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه سیزدهم اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۳ ] [ 19:54 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
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