پارسی، ترجمه و ویرایش
 
قالب وبلاگ
[ دوشنبه چهاردهم مهر 1393 ] [ 12:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

امروز ۳۰ سپتامبر «روز جهانی مترجم» است.

این روز را به مترجمان دلسوز کشورمان تبریک عرض می‌نمایم.

 

Today is the International Translation Day.

Congratulations to devoted translators around the world, especially those in our own country, Iran.

[ سه شنبه هشتم مهر 1393 ] [ 9:11 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی 

Persian Unicode Fonts

 

 

بهتر است برای تایپ مطالب چه به زبان پارسی، چه به انگلیسی، از فونت‌های «یونیکُد»بهره ببریم. به زبان ساده، یونیکد استانداردی است که در همه‌جای دنیا و روی هر رایانه‌ای حروف و نشانه‌های زبانی را درست نمایش می‌دهد.

 

 

تا کنون برای ساختن فونت یونیکد در زبان پارسی هم تلاشهایی صورت گرفته است. من چهار دسته از این فونت‌ها را در اینجا برای خوانندگان گرامی به اختصار توضیح می‌دهم و لینک دانلود همۀ آنها را هم در پایان مطلب گذاشته‌ام.

دستۀ سوم (سِری XB) از همۀ فونت‌های دیگر بهتر و دارای استانداردهای بیشتری است:

۱- گروه «فارسی وِب» در دانشگاه صنعتی شریف (که البته دو سالی است متأسفانه منحل شده است) تاکنون هفت فونت یونیکد ساخته است (مانند نازلی، رویا، هما، تیتر، ترافیک، و الهام)؛ البته اشکالی که این فونت‌ها دارد این است که نمی‌توان با آنها هم فارسی تایپ کرد و هم انگلیسی و نیز در آفیس ۲۰۱۳ جداجدا از هم نمایش داده می‌شود، مثلاً «س‌ل‌ا‌م» به جای «سلام»!

۲- آقای «فرهنگ مهروش» و برخی از همکارانشان هفت فونت یونیکد ساخته‌اند (لوتوس، تهران، زر، باران، میترا، یاقوت و فونت زیبای «تایم کریم»). این فونت‌ها دو مشکل ذکر شده در بالا را ندارند. ایشان دربارۀ فونت‌های فارسی و مشکلات آن هم توضیحات بسیار روشنگری داده‌اند که من در این وبلاگ آن را با عنوان «مشکلات ما ایرانیان در استفاده از فونت» نقل کرده‌ام (البته با ذکر منبع).

۳- فونت‌های سِـری XB که بیش از ده فونت است و ظاهراً سایتی به نام IRMUG آنها را ساخته است. این فونت‌ها روی هر سیستم‌عاملی کار می‌کنند – یعنی روی همۀ ویندوزها، مکینتاش، و لینوکس. دو مشکل بالا را هم ندارند. فونت نیلوفر (XB Niloofar) هم یکی از این فونت‌هاست که بسیار زیبا و چشم‌نواز نیز می‌باشد.

IRMUG X Series 2 fonts are created by IRMUG (Iranian Mac User Group). They support Persian (Farsi), Arabic, Dari, Urdu, Pashto, Uzbek, Kurdish, Uighur, old Turkish (Ottoman) and modern Turkish (Roman). The fonts are equipped with two font technologies, AAT and OpenType and can be used on Mac, Windows or Linux.

۴- فونت‌های «شورای عالی اطلاع‌رسانی» که ۳۹ فونت می‌باشد. نکتۀ جالب و خوبِ این فونت‌ها این است که اندکی جمع و جورتر هستند، بدین معنی که مثلاً مقاله‌ای ۵ صفحه‌ای را که با دیگر فونت‌ها تایپ کرده‌اید اگر به این فونت‌ها تغییر دهید اندکی کوتاه‌تر (مثلاً ۴ صفحه) می‌شود!

اما یک نکتۀ کوچک در مورد این دسته این است که کاراکتر فارسیِ ۀ را مانند دستۀ XB به زیبایی به شکل «ی» کوچک‌شده نشان نمی‌دهد.

 

به دوستان و دانشجویانی که علاقه‌مند به رعایت نکات نگارشی و پاسداشت زبان پارسی هستند سفارشِ اکید می‌کنم که این فونت‌ها (بویژه گروه سوم و چهارم) را دانلود و همیشه استفاده کنند.

نکتۀ مهم: علاوه بر به کارگیریِ فونت استاندارد، کلیدهای کیبورد شما نیز باید درست تعریف شده باشد؛ مطلبِ «نرم‌افزار چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد» را در همین وبلاگ حتماً ملاحظه بفرمایـید.

بعداً دربارۀ کیبورد فارسی و رفع مشکل حرف «ی» فارسی و «ي» عربی مطالبی خواهم نوشت.

۱- لینک مستقیم دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی (فارسی وِب دانشگاه شریف((لینک اصلاح شد)

۲- لینک دانلود فونت‌های اصلاح‌شدۀ آقای مهروش + اطلاعات سودمند

۳- لینک دانلود فونت‌های سری  XB (از سایتِ سازنده)

۴- لینک دانلود فونت‌های «شورای عالی اطلاع‌رسانی»

 

 

 

در صورتی که لینک‌ها خراب بود، با اینجانب تماس بگیرید تا فونت‌ها را برایتان ایمیل کنم.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: فونت‌های یونیکد فارسی
برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
[ سه شنبه بیستم فروردین 1392 ] [ 21:22 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

دانلود فونت یونیکد و زیبای نیلوفر XB Niloofar

Persian Unicode Fonts

 

با درود.

این بار فونت زیبا و استانداردی را که به تازگی پیدا کرده‌ام برای استفادۀ همۀ فارسی‌زبانان، بویژه دانشجویان گرامی، در این وبلاگ می‌گذارم.

یکی از معضلات بسیاری از فونت‌های موجود این است که مثلاً در عبارت «خانـۀ ما» نشان کوچک «ی» را به شکل همزه روی «ـه» نشان می‌دهد. ما در فارسی چنین همزه‌ای نداریم. فقط طراحان و سازندگان فونت این «ۀ» کوچک را به اشتباه به صورت همزه طراحی کرده‌اند. فونت «نیلوفر» این مشکل را حل کرده‌ است. البته لیستی از مزیت‌های این فونت را به صورت فایل PDF آمده کرده‌ام که می‌توانید آن را مطالعه بفرمایید. این فایل و فونت را از لینک زیر دانلود نمایید.

لینک دانلود فونت یونیکد نیـلـوفـر   XB Niloofar

لینک کمکی

 


برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
[ دوشنبه پنجم فروردین 1392 ] [ 22:17 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

فونت‌های یونیکدِ فارسی + دانلود فونت‌های جدید

 Persian Unicode Fonts


مطلب زیر برگرفته از سایتی است که به رسم رعایت امانت و کپی‌رایت، نشانی آن را در پایان مطلب ذکر کرده‌ام. البته از لحاظ نگارشی و تایپی، اندکی آن را تغییر داده‌ام ولی محتوا کاملاً یکسان است.

فونت‌های یونیکدِ ارائـه شده در این مطلب با فونت‌های فارسی وب (که پیشتر معرفی کردم) فرق دارد.

می‌توانید برای دریافت نسخۀ قابل چاپِ همین مطلب، به اینجانب ایمیل بزنید.

لطفاً این مبحث را به دوستان خود نیز اطلاع دهید تا کم‌کم همۀ پارسی‌زبانان از فونت‌های استاندارد و کاراکترهای درست بهره بـبـرند.

***

مشکلات ما ایرانیان در استفاده از فونت

مشکل اول: همۀ ما در کاربردهای اینترنتی خویش بارها دیدهایم که سایت‌های انگلیسی‌زبان از چه تنوع فونتی برخوردارند؛ حال آن که سایت‌های فارسی‌زبان را همواره باید با فونت «تایمز نیو رومن»  یا «تاهما» نوشت. جالب اینجاست که زحمت تهیۀ همین دو فونت یونیکد را هم خود ما ایرانی‌ها نکشیدهایم. واقعاً جای تأسف دارد که این قدر بیتوجهیم.

 

مشکل دوم: همۀ ما بارها دیدهایم که فونت‌های فارسی وقتی از یک... [ادامۀ مطلب را بخوانید.]

 


موضوعات مرتبط: فونت‌های یونیکد فارسی
برچسب‌ها: فونت یونیکد پارسی, Persian Unicode Fonts
ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه ششم آذر 1391 ] [ 19:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

تلاش خواهم کرد در این وبلاگ، هر از گاهی، به یک نکتۀ نگارشی و ویرایشی اشاره کنم. امیدوارم دوستداران زبان پارسی و دانشجویان رشتۀ مترجمی انگلیسی این نکات را همیشه رعایت نمایند.

 

کامای اضافی (نابه‌جا)

یکی از اشتباهات رایج این است که کاما (یا همان ویرگول) را در جاهایی به کار ببریم که نباید. در اینجا پنج مورد از همین کاربردهای نادرستِ کاما را بررسی می‌کنیم:

 

۱- فاعل و فعل را نباید با کاما از هم جدا کرد.

نمونه:

غلط: آن کتابِ روی میز، بسیار جالب است.

درست: آن کتابِ روی میز بسیار جالب است.

 

۲- قبل و بعد از «وجه وصفیِ محدودکننده» (یا همان restrictive adjective clause) نباید کاما بگذاریم.

نمونه:

غلط: مردی که کلاه مشکی به سر دارد، برادر من است.

درست: مردی که کلاه مشکی به سر دارد برادر من است.

 

۳- فعل اصلیِ جمله نباید با کاما از مفعول جدا شود.

نمونه:

غلط: همه می‌دانند که، قواعد بازی را باید رعایت کرد.

درست: همه می‌دانند که قواعد بازی را باید رعایت کرد.

۴- میانِ عناصری که با حروف ربط مرکب (یا همان correlative conjunctions) به هم مربوط می‌شوند نباید کاما بگذاریم.

نمونه:

غلط: او دلش می‌خواست یا جراح شود، یا مهندس مکانیک!

درست: او دلش می‌خواست یا جراح شود یا مهندس مکانیک!

 

و نکته‌ای کلّی اینکه در هنگام نوشتن نباید هرجا خواستیم لحظه‌ای صبر کنیم یا نفسی تازه کنیم کاما بگذاریم! این کار اشتباهی است که در بسیاری از نوشته‌های دانشجویی (و گاه حتی غیردانشجویی) به چشم می‌خورد.


موضوعات مرتبط: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
برچسب‌ها: نکات نگارشی و ویرایشی
[ سه شنبه هشتم مهر 1393 ] [ 10:5 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

همۀ ما با کاراکترِ «فاصله» آشنا هستیم. اما کجا باید از نیم فاصله استفاده کنیم و اصلاً چیست و به چه دردی می‌خورد؟

نیم‌فاصله چیست؟

 این کاراکتر با فاصلۀ معمولی اندکی تفاوت دارد؛ فاصله را میان واژه‌های کاملاً مجزا از هم می‌گذاریم؛ مثلاً «من دیروز دوستم را دیدم.»

اما هنگامی که واژه‌ای خودش دو بخش نوشتاریِ جدا از هم دارد باید آن دو بخش را با نیم‌فاصله از هم جدا کنیم. مثلاً فعل‌های ماضی نقلی، مضارع، و ماضی استمراری را در نظر بگیرید:

۱- رفته ام؛ می روم؛ می دیدم؛ ...

۲- رفته‌ام؛ می‌روم؛ می‌دیدم؛ ...

شمارۀ ۱ با فاصلۀ معمولی تایپ شده ولی شمارۀ ۲ با نیم فاصله. نیم‌فاصله دو بخش واژه را بسیار به هم نطدیک می‌کند ولی به هم نمی‌چسباند. واژه‌های ردیف ۲ اگر در آخِـر خط بیایند همیشه در کنار هم می‌مانند، یعنی یــا هر دو بخش در آخر خط هستند یا با هم به خط بعدی می‌روند، نه اینکه بخش اول در آخر خط بماند و بخش دوم به سطر بعد منتقل شود.

دیگر مواردی که باید از نیم‌فاصله استفاده کنیم:

-      نشانۀ جمع «ها»، البته اگر نخواهیم آن را به واژۀ اصلی بچسبانیم: کتاب‌ها

-      واژه‌های مرکب: دانش‌آموز، چشم‌انداز، نیم‌فاصله، هم‌میهن، بی‌تو، عذاب‌آور.

-      نشانۀ نکره «ای»: خانه‌ای، مدرسه‌ای، بازی‌ای جالب، نتیجه‌ای، چینی‌ای، سینی‌ای، ...

-      افزودن نشانۀ صفت «برتر» و «برترین»: دیدنی‌ترین، بلندهمت‌تر، نادان‌ترین، آراسته‌تر، خواندنی‌ترین، ...

چگونه کاراکتر «نیم‌فاصله» را در نرم‌افزار وُرد (Word) تایپ کنیم؟

چند راه وجود دارد. در اینجا فقط دو راه را بررسی می‌کنم:

۱- راه عذاب‌آور: از منوی Insert گزینۀ Symbols را انتخاب می‌کنیم. سپس پنجره‌ای باز می‌شود. روی هر خانۀ آن که کلیک کنیم، نام کاراکترِ آن خانه در پایین و سمت چپِ پنجره نمایش داده می‌شود. از بالا، حدود ۲۰ ردیف پایین می‌آیـیـم تا به چند خانۀ خالی کنار هم برسیم. یکی از این خانه‌های خالی نامش چنین است: Zero Width Non‑joiner. آن را که پیدا کردیم، روی دکمۀ Shortcut key کلیک می‌کنیم. پنجرۀ جدیدی باز می‌شود و نشانگرِ موس در کادری به نام Press new shortcut key در حال چشمک زدن است. حالا هر ترکیبی از کلیدهای کیبورد را که می‌خواهیم برای ما نیم‌فاصله تایپ کند (مثلاً Ctrl+space) در همان کادر تایپ می‌کنیم و سرانجام دکمۀ Assign در پایین همان پنجره را کلیک می‌کنیم. حالا دیگر در ورد هر وقت همان ترکیب را بزنیم، نیم‌فاصله تایپ می‌شود.

۲- راه یک بار برای همیشه: نرم‌افزاری کوچک و عالی را به سرعت نصب کنیم تا هر کاراکتری را که دلمان خواست برای هر کلیدی که خواستیم تعریف کنیم؛ با این کار دیگر فقط در نرم‌افزار «ورد» نخواهد بود که می‌توانیم نیم‌فاصله تایپ کنیم، بلکه در هر جای ویندوز نیز می‌توان از نیم‌فاصله استفاده کرد. این نرم‌افزار نامش Keyboard Layout Manager است: بهترین، استانداردترین و حرفه‌ای‌ترین. روش دانلود و نصبِ این نرم‌افزار را در مطلب دیگری در همین وبلاگ در این لینک توضیح داده‌ام: نرم‌افزار رایگان چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد.

اگر در مورد این مطلب سؤالی داشتید یا در نصب و استفاده از این نرم‌افزار رایگان به مشکلی برخوردید، حتماً با من تماس بگیرید.

 

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: چینش دلخواه کلیدهای کیبورد
برچسب‌ها: نیم‌فاصله, فاصلۀ مجازی, تایپ فارسی, تصحیح کیبورد
[ دوشنبه هفدهم شهریور 1393 ] [ 10:5 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۱۱

۱ خرداد ۹۳

 

درگذشت ناگهانی خانم «فاطمه شمس کلاهی» را به خانوادۀ ایشان و دانشجویان گرامی تسلیت می‌گویم. روحش شاد.

Youth unemployment is blighting a whole generation of youngsters. The International Labour Organisation estimates there are 75m 15-to-24-year-olds looking for work across the globe. But this figure excludes a large number of youngsters who do not participate in the labour market at all. Among the 34 members of the OECD, a club of rich nations, it is estimated there are 26m youths not in education, employment or training. Similarly, across the developing countries, the World Bank estimates that there are 262m such youths. All told, there are perhaps as many as 290m 15-to-24-year-olds not participating in the labour market — almost a quarter of the world’s youth, and a group almost as large as the population of America. More young people are idle than ever before. Why?

Some of these youths choose not to work. About a quarter of the 290m are south Asian women who do not work for cultural reasons. And under-24s who are working are disproportionately engaged in informal or temporary employment. In the rich world, it is estimated that a third of under-24s are on temporary contracts; in developing countries a fifth are unpaid labourers or work in the informal sector. That is better than not working at all, but is hardly cause for celebration. In total, nearly half of the world’s young are contributing to the labour market less effectively than they could be.

In the developing world, a second contributory factor is that many countries with fast-growing populations also have inefficient labour markets. Almost half the world’s young people live in South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. A third factor is the growing mismatch between the skills that youngsters have and the vacancies that employers want to fill.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه بیست و هفتم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 14:25 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۹

۱ خرداد ۹۳

 درگذشت ناگهانی خانم «فاطمه شمس کلاهی» را به خانوادۀ ایشان و دانشجویان گرامی تسلیت می‌گویم. روحش شاد.

One wonders how much further the United States will allow itself to be dragged down into the deepening abyss that is today’s Egypt. Those in the Obama administration and Congress who favor continued U.S. military aid to the dictatorship in Cairo insist that although such aid may run counter to American ideals, it does serve American interests. I would argue the contrary, that American interests are being harmed every day that support continues.

Far from aiding the United States in the struggle against terrorism, as the Egyptian military dictatorship and its supporters claim, the military’s brutal crackdown on Egypt’s Islamists is creating a new generation of terrorists. Whatever one thought of the government of Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Morsi, and there was much to criticize, it came to office by fair and legitimate electoral means, just as U.S. policy had demanded, and it was headed toward a second election that it probably would have lost.

Although the Morsi government did use force against demonstrators, that was nothing compared with the military’s killing of thousands and imprisonment of tens of thousands since the military coup last summer. Terrorism since the coup has killed more than 10 times as many people as it did in the year Morsi was in office. And it’s not surprising that terrorism has been on the upswing. The military’s crackdown, in which hundreds may be condemned to death in an hour-long trial, will leave some Islamists believing that their only choice is to kill or be killed. For every jihadist the military may kill in the Sinai Peninsula, it creates many more future jihadists throughout the nation.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ جمعه بیست و ششم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 15:58 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۱۰

پنجشنبه، ۲۵ اردیبهشت ۹۳

“Phase two of the Iranian targeted subsidy plan” is as clunky in Persian as it is in English, but it rolls off every Iranian’s tongue. On April 28th President Hassan Rohani raised petrol prices by 75%, from 4,000 to 7,000 rials ($0.16 to $0.28) per litre. Increases in the price of staples are imminent, too.

This second round of cuts to the subsidies on petrol, gas and electricity, as well as on staples, was due in June 2012. But the former president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, repeatedly delayed it, thanks in part to a feud with the parliament. Although Mr Roohani’s cuts come at a time of slow economic growth and high inflation, both the state and the people support him more than his predecessor.

Like many oil-rich countries in the region that lavished funds on their people, Iran needs to cut the huge cost of subsidising its growing population of 77m. An estimated $40-100 billion is paid every year to keep Iranians, poor and rich, supplied with cheap energy, water, fuel and basic food. Consumption has soared. Shopkeepers in Tehran spray their verandas to drive away the dust. Cars clog the country’s roads. Iran’s energy consumption is reckoned to be 80% above the Middle East’s average. Worse, billions of dollars are squandered every year by smugglers taking Iran’s cheap fuel across borders to Iraq and Pakistan.

 

Iranians hope the subsidy reform will be done better than under Mr Ahmadinejad. In the first round of cuts in 2010, half the money saved was meant to be redistributed to the poor. But the government did not have good enough data to work out who should qualify. With the nation still reeling from the tumult following his disputed re-election in 2009, Mr Ahmadinejad handed the cash out to everyone. This ate into money earmarked for industry, so Iran’s oil, gas and petrochemical sectors, targeted by sanctions in 2012, accrued large debts. The sanctions also sent the rial crashing, causing huge inflation in Iran’s import-dominated economy.

Source: Economist; April 30th 2014


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ دوشنبه بیست و دوم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 15:18 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۸

۲۵ اردیبهشت ۹۳

Foreign Ministry: PGCC Allegations False

 

Foreign Ministry Spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast said recent allegations made by the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council are baseless and false.

In the final statement of the 119th session of the PGCC foreign ministers, which concluded in the Saudi port of Jeddah late on Tuesday, the council expressed deep alarm at Iran’s nuclear program, PressTV reported.

PGCC member-states also accused the Islamic Republic of interfering in the internal affairs of Persian Gulf countries. Mehmanparast described these claims as an attempt to divert the international community’s attention from the militarist and crisis-causing measures of certain regional countries in the face of their people’s legitimate demands.

“Such measures will not help the security and stability of the region,” the spokesman said, adding that it will only divert attention from Israel as the real threat.

Mehmanparast stressed the importance of preserving the security of the Persian Gulf for Iran and said the attempts of certain regional currents and media in sowing the seeds of discord were ‘irresponsible’.

Founded in 1981, the PGCC groups Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait.


Crisis of Illegitimacy

An Iranian lawmaker also lashed out at the PGCC for leveling “unfounded and baseless” accusations against Tehran, saying the council is trying to conceal its illegitimacy.

“PGCC member-states are attributing groundless issues to Iran in order to conceal their internal problems and escape the crisis of illegitimacy,” said a member of the Majlis National Security and Foreign Policy Commission, Mohammad Baba-Ahmadi, on Wednesday.

The legislator added that the PGCC states make such claims to divert the world public opinion from the ongoing developments in the region, Majlis news agency ICANA reported.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه بیستم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 21:40 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۹

پنجشنبه، ۱۸ اردیبهشت ۹۳

رعایت نکات نگارشی و تایـپـی و نشانه‌های سجاوندی و استفاده از فونت یـونـیکد الـزامی است!

NEW YORK (Reuters) — Rating agency Moody’s warned it may cut the triple-A ratings of France, Britain and Austria and it downgraded six other European nations including Italy, Spain and Portugal, citing growing risks from Europe’s debt crisis.

Moody’s move was less aggressive than rival agency Standard & Poor’s, but its action puts London's prized top credit rating in jeopardy for the first time.

It said it was worried about Europe's ability to undertake the reforms needed to address the crisis and the amount of funds available to fight it. It also said the region's weak economy could undermine austerity drives by governments to fix their finances.

The euro and sterling fell after the announcement, with pound falling 0.4 percent to $1.57 and the single currency dipping 0.3 percent to $1.31.

The U.S. rating agency said it changed the outlooks for the ratings of France, Britain, and Austria to negative due to a number of specific credit pressures that would exacerbate the susceptibility of these sovereigns’ balance sheets.

Germany’s top-tier rating was described as “appropriate” by Moody's, and it affirmed the triple-A rating on the euro zone's bailout fund, the European Financial Stability Fund (EFSF).

Moody’s, which said late last year it was reconsidering its European ratings, cut the ratings of Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Malta by one notch. It downgraded Spain by two notches.

Moody’s said the scope of the downgrades was limited due to “the European authorities’ commitment to preserving the monetary union and implementing whatever reforms are needed to restore market confidence.”

The announcement came a day after Greece’s parliament approved a deep new round of budget cuts in the hope of securing new bailout funds and avoiding a default in March.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه سیزدهم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 19:54 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

 ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۸

۱۱ اردیبهشت ۹۳

 Inflation — defined as a sustained increase in the price of goods and services — seems to be inevitable. While rising prices are bad news for consumers inflation can be quite profitable for investors.

Inflation-Sensitive Investments

 Inflation erodes the value of a nation’s currency. In an inflationary environment, a gallon of milk that once cost $3 may now cost $4. There are a variety of factors that influence inflation and arguments about its root cause, but for consumers and investors, the end result is the same. Prices rise. For investors, the key to making money in an inflationary environment is to hold investments that increase in value at a rate in excess of the rate of inflation. A number of investments are historically viewed as hedges against inflation. These include real estate, gold, oil, stocks and inflation-indexed bonds.

Real estate is a popular choice not only because rising prices increase the resale value of the property over time, but because real estate can also be used to generate rental income. Just as the value of the property rises with inflation, the amount tenants pay in rent can be increased over time, enabling the income generated by an investment property to keep pace with the general rise in prices across the economy.

Gold is also a popular inflation hedge. Investors tend to turn to this precious metal during inflationary times, causing its price to rise. While silver and other metals also tend to gain value during inflationary times, gold is generally the headline-grabbing investment, with the price of gold shooting up when inflation is notably present.

Like real estate and gold, the price of oil moves with inflation. This cost increase flows through to the price of gasoline and then to the price of every consumer good transported by truck or produced by a machine that is powered by gas (tractors, etc.). Since modern society cannot function without fuel to move vehicles filled with consumers and consumer goods, oil has a strong appeal to investors when inflation is rising. Other commodities such as cotton, orange juice and soybeans also tend to gain in price when inflation rises.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه پنجم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 8:1 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمـۀ سیاسی – متن ۷

۱۱ اردیبهشت ۹۳

 Terrorism

Though there is no generally agreed upon definition of “terrorism”, much can be said about what the term has denoted historically and what it has come to mean by the beginning of the twenty-first century. Its significance for international relations and diplomacy in the contemporary world is beyond dispute. Events of the 1990s and early 2000s have shown terrorism to be one of the major problems confronting the global system in a period of deep and far-reaching transformation.

Terrorism is a form of political violence. It is, more specifically, violence directed against civilians for political purposes. Some authorities — including the United States government — define it as political violence against civilians committed by non-state or sub-state actors. Others insist that political violence against civilians by states must also be considered a form of terrorism. In this case, the aerial bombardment of cities, most notably in World War II, may be seen as a form of state terrorism.

Historically, the use of “terrorism” dates back to the age of French Revolution. During the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), “terrorism” was employed in an attempt to eliminate “traitors” to the Revolution. The leaders of Reign of Terror thus saw “terrorism” as a way of defending the Revolution’s values of liberty, equality and brotherhood, but the term quickly became associated with the guillotine and state repression. Rather than an instrument for defending liberty, terrorism was the means by which the revolutionary government kept people subservient by keeping them in fear. Many of the most brutal regimes of the twentieth century employed terrorism in a similar manner, including Nazi German, the Soviet Union under Stalin, Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ پنجشنبه چهارم اردیبهشت 1393 ] [ 21:30 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۶

۴ اردیبهشت ۹۳


دانشجویان گرامی،

۱- حتماً ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت همۀ اصول تایپ و نگارش به صورت تایپ‌شده تحویل دهید.

۲- پیش از شروع کلاس حتماً دو نسخه را آماده داشته باشید.

 ۳- پیش از تایپ، موضوعِ «دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی» را در همین وبلاگ مطالعه بفرمایـید. 

Democratic Theory: Majority Rule

The principle that decisions in a democracy should be made by the greater number of citizens in any political unit. Although the majority possesses the right and the power to govern, democratic theory also demands that minority right be protected and that the minority be permitted to criticize and offer alternative to the policies of the majority and seek, through the electoral process, to become the majority.

The principle of majority rule has been accepted by most democratic theorists as the sine qua non of the doctrines and practices of democracy. If the majority does not rule, power must then be exercised by an elite group selected on the basis of wealth, status, ability, or other criteria. Typically, if the majority will does not prevail, the governing system takes the form of absolutism or authoritarian control. Although rule by the majority is facilitated in a working two-party system — as in Great Britain — coalition governments based on groups of parties that join to form a majority and establish a government are most common in democratic states. Some democratic theorists reject majority rule in favour of government by consensus or by a concurrent majority which offers minority groups a veto over major policies. Antidemocratic theorists regard majority rule as “mobocracy” or government by the untrained, unfit, and emotionally unstable masses. The application of the principle of majority rule to a working system of government, however, tends to encourage stability through widespread participation of citizens in public affairs.

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه سی ام فروردین 1393 ] [ 20:55 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۷

۴ اردیبهشت ۹۳

دانشجویان گرامی،

 ۱- ترجمۀ خود را با رعایت تمام نکات نگارشی و تایـپی به صورت تایپ‌شده (در دو نسخه) پیش از شروع کلاس آماده داشته باشید.

  ۲- پیش از تایپ، موضوع دانلود فونت‌های یونیکد پارسی را در همین وبلاگ مطالعه بفرمایـید.


IMF

The executive board of the International Monetary Fund has approved US$6.3 million in emergency assistance for natural disasters for the Maldives. The amount approved is available immediately to help the government deal with the devastating effect of the tsunami that struck the island on December 26, 2004. Although the loss of life was limited, there was extensive damage to housing and about 5 percent of the population lost their homes. Tourism and fisheries account for 40 percent of GDP and generate most of the Maldives’ foreign earnings. Net losses to the balance of payments are estimated at about US$160 million in 2005, and total reconstruction costs are estimated at almost 50 percent of GDP.

 

US importers back China textiles

Textile importers and retailers have sued the US government to block a proposed limit on imports from China. Producers have asked for textile quotas because they say Chinese imports will damage the domestic industry. The Commerce Department and four other government agencies are investigating the allegations. But the US Association of Importers of Textiles and Apparel says the case is based on wrong information and violates importers’ rights. According to US-AITA’s executive director, the rules for the government agencies ban petitions such as those from the textile industry.

G8 seeks boost in oil production

Finance ministers and central bank heads from the world’s eight largest economies have urged oil producers to increase supplies to bring down prices. The G8 officials say the prices are a threat to global economy. In a joint statement after meeting in Washington, the ministers also called on consumer nations to make savings on energy consumption. The G8 ministers exhorted the producers to increase output when they met six months ago and it had no perceptible effect. Prices rose all the same, despite that they have again said that producers should provide adequate supplies to ensure that price is moderate.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه بیست و نهم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:19 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی - متن ۶

۲۸ فروردین ۹۳

Economic Growth

The growth rate of a variable is its percentage increase per annum. To define economic growth, we must specify both the variable we wish to measure and the period over which we wish to measure its rate of change. GDP and GNP measure the total output and total income of an economy. In particular, GDP and GNP are very incomplete measures of economic output; it is difficult to account for the introduction of new products; and there is no direct relation between GDP and happiness.

GDP measures the net output or value added of an economy by measuring goods and services purchased with money. It omits output which is not bought or sold and therefore is unmeasured. The two most important omissions are leisure and pollution.

In most industrial countries, the length of an average work week has fallen by at least ten hours a week since 1990. In choosing to work fewer hours per week, people reveal that the extra leisure is worth at least as much as the extra goods that could have been produced by working harder. But when people decide to swap washing machines for extra leisure, recorded GDP is reduced; hence GDP understates the true economic output of the economy. Conversely, the output of pollution reduces the net economic welfare that the economy is producing and ideally should be subtracted from GDP.

Including leisure in GDP would have increased recorded GDP in both 1870 and 1990. Since the value of leisure has probably increased less quickly than measured output, which increased ninefold in the UK and 90-fold in Japan, over the same period, this would tend to reduce the rate of growth of a more comprehensive output measure.

The object of all economic activity is to provide people with the highest possible real incomes or standard of living.

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه بیست و سوم فروردین 1393 ] [ 19:38 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

تـرجـمـۀ سیـاسـی – متن ۵

پنجـشنبه ۲۸ فروردین ۹۳


CAIRO — Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi rebuilt his cabinet Sunday, replacing 10 ministers and amplifying the Islamist presence in the government. The move, in which at least three Islamists were appointed to head major economic ministries, comes a day ahead of a planned visit by a top International Monetary Fund official to discuss an impending $4.8 billion loan.


The shake-up also marked the latest in a series of appointments and forced resignations that have rattled Egypt’s government in the two years of political turmoil since a popular uprising ousted President Hosni Mubarak. Morsi, as well as the transitional leaders who ruled before his June election, have used cabinet shuffles as a means to assuage popular frustration at the slow pace of economic and political reforms.


Islamist political parties gave their support to the latest move, but some opposition members criticized it, saying it served only to further consolidate Islamist control of top government positions weeks after a conflict over the religious character of Egypt’s new constitution left the country bitterly divided.


Mohamed Adel, a leader in the April 6th youth opposition movement, said in a statement Sunday that Morsi’s administration had not consulted opposition parties on the move and that the Muslim Brotherhood would bear responsibility for any bad policies to come. Morsi is a former leader of the powerful Islamist organization.


At least three of the new ministers are long-serving members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including those heading the ministries of supply and domestic trade, and local development. The new finance minister, Al-Mursi al-Sayed Hegazy, is not a member of the Islamist organization, but local media described him as a specialist in Islamic banking who may be sympathetic to the group.


Many of the Brotherhood’s allies from the more-conservative Salafist parties have called on the government to implement a system of Islamic banking, which would ban interest on loans, as an alternative mechanism for economic reform.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه شانزدهم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:45 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۵

پنجشنبه، ۲۱ فروردین ۹۳

Unemployment

The unemployment rate tells macroeconomists how many people from the available pool of labour (the labour force) are unable to find work. Macroeconomists have come to agree that when the economy has witnessed growth from period to period, which is indicated in the GDP growth rate, unemployment levels tend to be low. This is because with rising (real) GDP levels, we know that output is higher, and, hence, more labourers are needed to keep up with the greater levels of production.


Inflation

The third main factor that macroeconomists look at is the inflation rate, or the rate at which prices rise. Inflation is primarily measured in two ways: through the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP deflator. The CPI gives the current price of a selected basket of goods and services that is updated periodically. The GDP deflator is the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP.

If nominal GDP is higher than real GDP, we can assume that the prices of goods and services has been rising. Both the CPI and GDP deflator tend to move in the same direction and differ by less than 1%.


Demand and Disposable Income

What ultimately determines output is demand. Demand comes from consumers (for investment or savings, residential and business), from the government (spending on goods and services of federal employees) and from imports and exports.

Demand alone, however, will not determine how much is produced. What consumers demand is not necessarily what they can afford to buy; therefore, in order to determine demand, a consumer's disposable income must also be measured.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه یکم فروردین 1393 ] [ 23:58 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۴

Arms Control: Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

An international agreement to prohibit diffusion of nuclear weapons among non-nuclear states. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was hammered out during four years of intensive negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC) and in the General Assembly's Political and Security Committee, leading to approval of the draft treaty by the assembly in June 1968. Under the terms of the treaty, each nuclear-weapon State agrees “not to transfer... assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”.

Each non-nuclear State agrees “not to receive... manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons”. The eleven-article treaty took effect after its ratification by three nuclear powers (Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and by forty non-nuclear countries. Today, most nations are signatories to the treaty and accept its terms as a limitation on their freedom of action in the nuclear weapons field. To counter the threat of future “nuclear blackmail”, the three nuclear powers offered in a Security Council action to provide “immediate assistance, in accordance with the Charter, to any non-nuclear-weapon” State that is the victim of an act or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ جمعه شانزدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ 23:15 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

در یافتنِ معادل‌ اقتصادی عبارت‌های آبیرنگ دقّت بفرمایـید.


CORPORATE TAX RATES

American politicians talk a lot about tax reform but do nothing about it, which is a pity, because while Americans have been talking, other countries have been doing. Since the late 1980s, top corporate tax rates around the world have dropped so far that America’s, which was once below the international average, is now well above.

As this has happened, American-based multinational companies have shifted more activity offshore; their foreign employment has steadily risen over the past decade as domestic employment has declined. This is mostly because of the appeal of cheap labour and growing markets in the emerging world, but business groups and many economists think America’s tax rate is also to blame. Liberal analysts blame the tax code for a different reason: it allows multinationals to stash income in foreign havens and indefinitely defer taxes on it, encouraging the outsourcing of jobs.

Barack Obama claims to be ready to do something about it. Calling the present tax code “outdated, unfair, and inefficient”, he proposed on February 22nd to lower the top corporate rate to 28% from 35% (including state and local taxes, it would fall to 32.6% from 39.2%). Previous analysis suggests that such a cut would cost more than $700 billion, or 0.4% of GDP, over the next decade. Mr Obama would add to the price tag by making permanent a variety of tax provisions, such as the credit for research and development, which are likely to cost $250 billion over the next decade.



موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه شانزدهم اسفند 1392 ] [ 23:8 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

توجه: کلاسهای ترجمه سیاسی و اقتصادی این هفته پنجشنبه ۸ اسفند برگزار نمی گردد.



ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن ۳

We have seen that if there is too low a level of demand in an economy, the result is unemployment: during the 1920s and 1930s there was too little demand in Britain, and the consequence was prolonged unemployment. But what happens if there is too much demand in an economy? What is the opposite of unemployment? Naturally enough, Keynes did not devote a great deal of the General Theory to this question, but nevertheless he did answer it quite clearly. What one means by saying that there is too much demand in the economy is, to put it rather loosely, that the economy is already going flat out, with full employment of men and machinery, so that output is at its highest possible level—and that there is then an increase in demand. This increase in demand cannot call forth more output. All it can do is one of two things; either it can pull up the price of the goods and services that are already being produced—the consequence of a larger amount of money being spent on the same amount of staff. Or, in an economy with trades with other countries, it can increase, the quantity of goods available—but only by sucking in more imports and diverting to the home market goods that otherwise have been exported. In practice, an excessive level of demand will probably result in some of each; there will be some rise in prices, and imports will be higher, and exports lower than they would otherwise have been.

Now anyone who has lived in post-war Britain in even moderate possession of his faculties will observe that there is something familiar about this: rising prices, too low a level of exports, too high a level of imports; surely these are at the heart of our post-war economic problems. If Keynes’s analysis showed us how to prevent unemployment by ensuring that there is enough demand in the economy, why has it not also shown us how to prevent rising prices and balance of payments crises by avoiding too much demand?


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ پنجشنبه یکم اسفند 1392 ] [ 18:57 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

توجه: کلاسهای ترجمه سیاسی و اقتصادی این هفته پنجشنبه ۸ اسفند برگزار نمی گردد.


ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۳

Cameron Plays Down Prospect of In-Out EU Vote

British Prime Minister David Cameron yesterday played down the prospect of a referendum any time soon on whether Britain should leave the European Union, defying calls from within his Conservative Party and the public.

Cameron is expected to explain how he wants to change Britain’s relationship with the EU next week, in a speech that could set a course for leaving the 27-member bloc, deepen fractures within his own party, and strain ties with its Liberal Democrat coalition partners.

A weekend poll by the influential website ConservativeHome found that 78 percent of Conservative Party members either want Britain’s relationship with the EU reduced to access to its common market or to leave the bloc altogether.

“If we had an in-out referendum tomorrow, or very shortly, I don’t think that would be the right answer for the simple reason that I think we would be giving people a false choice,” Cameron told BBC radio.

Conservative infighting over Europe helped topple previous party leaders, and splits on the issue appear to be deepening as Cameron’s speech nears. Media reports say he will speak on January 22 or 23 in Germany or in the Netherlands. Cameron’s office declined to confirm the reports.

The Lib Dems, the Conservatives’ junior partners in coalition rule, are pro-Europe, and divisions over the issue threaten to put renewed strain on the partnership.

Cameron says he wants Britain to remain in the EU – a major trading partner – but is under pressure from an increasingly Eurosceptic public to repatriate powers from Brussels or leave the bloc altogether.



موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ پنجشنبه یکم اسفند 1392 ] [ 18:52 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی  متن ۲

To analyse the main aspects of the Ministry of Economic Affairs’ plans, there are six major economic topics that the minister, Tayyebnia, has considered at the core of his plans.

To focus on the challenges facing the country’s economy, we have to point out that high fluctuation of economic variables such as the exchange rate and low economic growth rate are the biggest challenges at the moment. On the other hand, the high two-digit unemployment rate, failure to form a coherent and efficient capital market, the continuation of implementing Targeted Subsidies Reform plan, constant limitation of foreign exchange revenues from exports of crude oil, and the economic recession along with budgetary and non-budgetary commitments and lack of foreign investment in our country are also of other problems that the country’s economy should deal with and put as priority for serious decision making.

According to this report, in the past, the Iranian economy has experienced many different conditions from policy-making approaches son one hand, and environmental conditions on the other. The dominant role of oil and, consequently, the overwhelming influence of the government on the economy, the lack of an effective impact on international markets, sanctions and external pressures all have sped up the process of mounting economic problems.

Now that production, consumption, private investment and government budget are considerably dependent on the oil revenues, the sudden drop f this revenue will be followed by undesirable consequences.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ شنبه بیست و ششم بهمن 1392 ] [ 19:46 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن ۲

What sparked the protests in Ukraine?

The protests began in November as a pro-Europe gesture, underscoring the tensions in a country split between pro-European regions in the West and a more Russia-oriented East.

Thousands spilled onto the streets after President Viktor Yanukovych did a U-turn over a trade pact with the European Union that had been years in the making -- favoring closer relations with Russia instead.

Angered by this backpedaling, the demonstrators demanded the EU deal be signed, saying it would strengthen cooperation with the bloc.

Their daily protests soon escalated, drawing parallels to Ukraine's 2004 Orange Revolution, which toppled the government.

But with Ukraine desperately in need of a cash injection, Kiev cited the need for financial assistance if it were to do business with the EU. Yanukovych, in power since 2010, said Ukraine could not afford to sign the deal, alluding to economic pressure from Russia.

Another factor in Yanukovych's decision not to sign the deal is likely to have been the EU's demands that he free from jail former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, his political opponent. The Orange Revolution that swept him from office in 2004, when he was prime minister, also swept Tymoshenko to power.

Soon afterward, he flew to Moscow where he and President Vladimir Putin announced Russia would buy $15 billion in Ukrainian debt and slash the price Kiev pays for its gas.

While unhappy with that, what inflamed the demonstrators even more, however, was the adoption of a sweeping anti-protest law by the parliament on January 16.

The new law included provisions barring people from wearing helmets and masks to rallies and from setting up tents or sound equipment without prior police permission.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ جمعه بیست و پنجم بهمن 1392 ] [ 23:25 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ سیاسی – متن شمارۀ ۱

(پنجشنبه ۲۴ بهمن ۹۲)

دانشجویان گرامی، لطفاً متن زیر را ترجمه و در دو نسخه همراه خود بیاورید.


After eight years of U.S.-led state-building efforts, thousands of coalition force fatalities, and nearly one trillion dollars spent, Iraq is drifting toward authoritarianism under Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki's Dawa Party while al-Qaeda-stoked violence is running at levels not seen in years. Although Washington's 2007 counterinsurgency strategy laid the groundwork for a pluralistic and representative government, as long as the country's current leaders have little motivation to abide by the rule of law, the future of a democratic Iraq looks grim.

Early Missteps

As the George W. Bush administration geared up for an intervention in 2003, it debated a post-invasion plan for leaving behind a state "based on moderation, pluralism, and democracy". But by April 2003, the chaos of post-Saddam Iraq prompted a change in plans. According to Bremer's 540-day "Iraq's Path to Sovereignty" plan, a constitution would need to be drafted, elections held, and a political framework developed before any handover of sovereignty.

If such an arrangement had taken place in a vacuum, the Coalition Provisional Authority's (CPA) emphasis on building the legitimacy of the nascent Iraqi state through process and elections would have been sound. But amid sectarian tensions and Sunni fears of disenfranchisement and retribution, process alone did little to bridge Iraq's "sovereignty gap." The CPA's fixation on procedure and sequencing overlooked a key insight highlighted by authors Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart in Fixing Failed States: A "state based on the consent of citizens and legitimacy of rules is likely to be more enduring than one imposed by force."


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون سیاسی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ سیاسی
[ شنبه نوزدهم بهمن 1392 ] [ 20:11 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

ترجمۀ اقتصادی – متن شمارۀ ۱

(پنجشنبه ۲۴ بهمن ۹۲)

دانشجویان گرامی، لطفاً ترجمۀ این متن را در دو نسخه همراه خود داشته باشید.


When the price of a product you want to buy goes up, it affects you. But why does the price go up? Is the demand greater than the supply? In order to answer these questions, we need to turn to macroeconomics.



What Is It?
Macroeconomics is the study of the behavior of the economy as a whole. This is different from microeconomics, which concentrates more on individuals and how they make economic decisions. Needless to say, macroeconomy is very complicated and there are many factors that influence it. These factors are analyzed with various economic indicators that tell us about the overall health of the economy.

Macroeconomists try to forecast economic conditions to help consumers, firms and governments make better decisions.
•    Consumers want to know how easy it will be to find work, how much it will cost to buy goods and services in the market, or how much it may cost to borrow money.
•    Businesses use macroeconomic analysis to determine whether expanding production will be welcomed by the market. Will consumers have enough money to buy the products, or will the products sit on shelves and collect dust?
•    Governments turn to the macroeconomy when budgeting spending, creating taxes, deciding on interest rates and making policy decisions.
Macroeconomic analysis broadly focuses on three things: national output (measured by gross domestic product (GDP)), unemployment and inflation.
 
National Output: GDP

Output, the most important concept of macroeconomics, refers to the total amount of goods and services a country produces, commonly known as the gross domestic product. The figure is like a snapshot of the economy at a certain point in time.

When referring to GDP, macroeconomists tend to use real GDP, which takes inflation into account, as opposed to nominal GDP, which reflects only changes in prices. The nominal GDP figure will be higher if inflation goes up from year to year, so it is not necessarily indicative of higher output levels, only of higher prices.


موضوعات مرتبط: ترجمۀ متون اقتصادی
برچسب‌ها: ترجمۀ اقتصادی
[ جمعه هجدهم بهمن 1392 ] [ 21:18 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

Sample questions from the book “Translation: An Advanced Resource Book”:

 

What is Translation Studies? (about 4 lines)

What are universals of translation? (2 examples)

Why do we say ‘translation studies’ is an interdiscipline?

When is it impossible to keep both form and content in translation?

When word-by-word translation is useful?

What is ‘translationese’?

What is ‘translatorese’?

Explain the unit of translation.

Name the components of linguistic sign as proposed by Saussure.

What is the difference between langue and parole?

Explain textual equivalence as opposed to formal correspondence (Catford).

What happens through ‘compensation’ in translation?

Briefly explain the concept of ‘Tertium comparationis’.

What are the two types of meaning as proposed by Nida? (examples)

Explain the technique of ‘componential analysis’.

What are the two types of equivalence as proposed by Nida? Explain briefly.

What does the idea of ‘equivalent effect’ in translation mean?

Nida introduced a three-stage translation process; briefly explain this process.

 

[ سه شنبه دهم دی 1392 ] [ 19:18 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

درس مبانی نظری ترجمه

 

دانلود فصل سوم کتاب Introducing Translation Studies

نویسنده: Jeremy Munday

 فایل PDF اصلاح شد (۶ مهر ۹۳)

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موضوعات مرتبط: مبانی نظری ترجمه
برچسب‌ها: مبانی نظری ترجمه
[ شنبه سی ام آذر 1392 ] [ 20:30 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]

نام کتاب:

Translation: An Advanced Resource Book

نویسندگان:

Basil Hatim and Jeremy Munday

 

این کتاب برای درس «مبانی نظری ترجمه» در دورۀ کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی مناسب است.

همچنین این کتاب یکی از منابع آزمون کارشناسی ارشد مترجمی انگلیسی است.

حجم فایل پی‌دی‌اِف: ۶٫۳۹ مگابایت

Download the e-Book:

Translation: An Advanced Resource book

PDF file size: 6.39 MB

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لینک دانلود

 


 

 

 


موضوعات مرتبط: مبانی نظری ترجمه
برچسب‌ها: مبانی نظری ترجمه
[ سه شنبه دوم مهر 1392 ] [ 12:47 ] [ اکبر خرمی ] [ ]
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